Advanced Physiology and Pathophysiology: Essentials for Clinical Practice PDF Free Download

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Specifically designed for future healthcare providers who will diagnose, manage, and prescribe

This advanced physiology and pathophysiology text is designed to address the specific learning needs of future nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and other advanced healthcare providers caring for patients across the lifespan. Focusing on practical applications of physiology, it facilitates in-depth understanding of important pathophysiological concepts as they relate to major disorders commonly seen in clinical practice and includes comprehensive pediatric and geriatric considerations. This knowledge is crucial to providing the foundation required to be an informed and confident clinical decision maker.

The author team includes experienced clinicians and educators: nurses and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, doctors of pharmacy, physicians, and basic scientists. This collaboration has produced a text that carefully details and richly illustrates the cellular structure and function of each organ system and mechanisms of associated major clinical disorders. Uniquely interweaving aspects of organ function during healthy states with disease-associated changes, the text emphasizes and extends the basic science foundation to practical clinical applications. The text promotes a deep understanding of cellular function in health and disease that provides the bedrock knowledge required to master pharmacology for prescriptive practice. Equally important, the solid foundation of applied pathophysiological mechanisms offered in this text prepares the student clinician to care for patients with a broad variety of disorders. This resource not only provides a deep dive into pathophysiology, but it also examines why patients often present with particular symptoms, the rationale for ordering specific diagnostic tests and interpretation of results, and common management strategies that proceed from the underlying pathophysiology.

Key Features:

  • Designed explicitly to build a foundation for pharmacology and clinical courses that lead to successful clinical practice and prescribing
  • Includes comprehensive lifespan considerations with key insights from specialists in pediatric and geriatric pathophysiology
  • Provides a complete chapter on the basic principles of genetics and genomics with coverage of genetic variations, assessment, and genomics woven throughout the book
  • Integrates thought questions and case studies to promote discussion and synthesis of information
  • Offers a unique Bridge to Clinical Practice in each chapter to translate science to patient care
  • Includes more than 500 images to illustrate complex scientific concepts
  • Summarizes the contents succinctly with handy key points at the end of each chapter
  • Provides access to the fully searchable ebook, including student ancillaries on Springer Publishing Connect™

 

From the Publisher

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designed

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lifespan

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Focusing on practical applications of physiology, the text facilitates in-depth understanding of important pathophysiological concepts as they relate to major disorders commonly seen in clinical practice and includes comprehensive pediatric and geriatric considerations. This knowledge is crucial to providing the foundation required to be an informed and confident clinical decision maker.

The author team includes experienced clinicians and educators: nurses and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, doctors of pharmacy, physicians, and basic scientists. This collaboration has produced a text that carefully details and richly illustrates the cellular structure and function of each organ system and mechanisms of associated major clinical disorders.

Chapters feature a comprehensive assessment of special populations, including patients with disabilities; pediatric, pregnant, and elderly patients; and transgendered and veteran populations, as well as differential diagnosis guidance in tabular format.

Table of contents

digitalTitle Page
Copyright
Dedication
Contents
Case Studies
Foreword
Acknowledgments
Contributors
Case Study Contributors
Reviewers
How to use this Book
Instructor Resources
List of Disorders
1. The Foundational Concepts of Clinical Practice
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND THE PROCESS OF CLINICAL DECISION-MAKING
BUILDING FROM A BASIC SCIENCE FOUNDATION: CHAPTERS 2 TO 4
Chemistry (Chapter 2)
Biochemistry (Chapter 2)
Molecular Biology and Genetics (Chapter 3)
Cell Biology (Chapter 4)
ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: CHAPTERS 5 to 17
Infectious Disease (Chapter 5)
The Immune System and Leukocyte Function (Chapter 6)
Neoplasia (Chapter 7)
Blood and Clotting (Chapter 8)
Circulation (Chapter 9)
Heart (Chapter 10)
Lungs (Chapter 11)
Kidneys (Chapter 12)
Gastrointestinal Tract (Chapter 13)
Liver (Chapter 14)
Nervous System (Chapter 15)
Musculoskeletal System (Chapter 16)
Endocrine System (Chapter 17)
CONNECTING THE DOTS
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND THE INDEPENDENT CLINICIAN
References
2. Chemical and Biochemical Foundations
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LIFE
Atomic Structure
The Periodic Table and Families of Elements
Electron Shells and Chemical Reactivity
Thought Questions 1–3
Ion Formation and Roles in the Body
ACIDS AND BASES
COVALENT BOND STRUCTURE AND FORMATION
Thought Questions 4 and 5
CHEMICAL PATTERNS IN PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Nonpolar versus Polar Covalent Bonds
Molecular Geometry
Molecular Properties of Water
Hydrogen Bonding and Aqueous Solutions of Polar Molecules and Ions
Hydrophobicity and Hydrophilicity
Thought Questions 6 and 7
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY FOUNDATIONS
Carbon-Based Molecules
Major Organic Functional Groups
Major Biochemical Reaction Types
BIOMOLECULES BUILD FROM SMALL TO LARGE
Carbohydrates
Thought Questions 8 and 9
Lipids
Thought Questions 10–12
Amino Acids and Proteins
Thought Questions 13–16
Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
Thought Questions 17 and 18
CONCLUSION: PHENYLKETONURIA REVISITED
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resource
3. Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Genetic Diseases
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
INFORMATION TRANSMISSION WITHIN CELLS AND BETWEEN CELL AND HUMAN GENERATIONS
DNA Structure
Molecular Biology of the Cell and DNA Replication
RNA Function and Protein Synthesis
Thought Questions 1 and 2
CONCEPTS IN GENETICS AND GENOMICS
Chromosome Terminology
Gene Terminology
Gene Variations
Inheritance: Mendelian and Non-Mendelian
Phenotypic Variability in Genetic Disorders: Penetrance and Expressivity
Thought Questions 3–5
TECHNICAL APPROACHES IN GENETICS AND GENOMICS
Family History and Pedigree Analysis
Karyotyping
Hybridization Arrays and Gene Chips
Whole Genome Sequencing
Research Approaches
Direct-to-Consumer Testing
EPIGENETICS
Thought Questions 6 and 7
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Prenatal Identification of Genetic Disorders
Genetic Disorders Identified After Birth
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
4. Cell Physiology and Pathophysiology
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW
CELL COMPONENTS
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Ribosomes and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Peroxisomes
Cytoskeleton
MECHANISMS OF MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
Diffusion
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
Aquaporins
Ion Channels
Thought Questions 1–3
MECHANISMS OF CELL SIGNALING
Overview of Signal Transduction
Autonomic Nervous System and Signaling by G Protein–Coupled Receptors
Cell Signaling by Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate
Cell Signaling by Enzyme-Linked Receptors
Cell Signaling by Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Receptors
Summary of Cell Signaling
Thought Questions 4–6
MECHANISMS OF CONTRACTILE CELLS
Overview of Contractile Cell Structure and Function
The Sarcomere of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle
Mechanism of Myofibril Crossbridge Formation and Contraction
Comparison of Skeletal Muscle Fibers and Cardiac Muscle Cells
Mechanisms of Smooth Muscle Contraction
Summary of Muscle Cell Function
Thought Questions 7 and 8
CELL RENEWAL, STRESS, AND CELL DEATH
Overview of Cell Renewal, Maintenance, and Adaptation
Overview of Cell Injury and Death
Thought Questions 9 and 10
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Cellular Theories of Aging
Nine Hallmarks of Aging
Frailty
Thought Questions 11 and 12
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
5. Infectious Disease
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Human–Microbe Interactions
Mechanisms of Protection from Pathogens
Portals of Pathogen Entry and Targets of Colonization
Pathogen Virulence Factors
Host Response Factors
Thought Questions 1–3
MICROBIAL PATHOGENICITY
Overview
Characteristics of Pathogen Classes
Thought Questions 4 and 5
CLINICAL CONCEPTS IN INFECTIOUS DISEASE
Methods of Pathogen Identification
Drug-Resistant Pathogens
Antimicrobial Stewardship
Thought Question 6
PATHOGENESIS OF SELECTED MICROBES
Streptococcus pyogenes
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Chlamydia trachomatis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Clostridioides difficile
Borrelia burgdorferi
Influenza Virus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Plasmodium Species
Thought Question 7
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Norovirus
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Varicella-Zoster Virus
HIV
CASE STUDY 5.1 A Patient With Acute HIV Infection
CASE STUDY 5.2 A Child With Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
6. The Immune System and Leukocyte Function
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
ROLE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION TO HOST DEFENSESS
Overview of Physical and Chemical Barriers
Overview of the Innate Immune Response
Overview of the Adaptive Immune Response
Thought Questions 1 and 2
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Hematopoiesis
Cells and Tissues of the Immune System
Thought Questions 3 and 4
INNATE IMMUNITY
Acute Inflammation
Innate Immune Cells
Innate Lymphoid Cells
Activation of the Innate Inflammatory Response
The Complement Pathway
Innate Responses to Viral Infection
Chronic Inflammation
Trained Innate Immunity
Transition from Innate to Adaptive Immunity: Antigen Presentation and the Major Histocompatibility Complex
Thought Questions 5–9
ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
B Cells are Responsible for Humoral Immunity
Thought Questions 10 and 11
T-Cell Functions
Pathogen–Host Immune Evasion Mechanisms
Vaccination
Hypersensitivity
Autoimmunity
Immunodeficiency
Thought Questions 12–14
IMMUNE RESPONSES ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Type 1 Hypersensitivity in Children and Adolescents
Atopic Dermatitis
Food Allergies
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Immune Cellular Senescence and Disease
Inflammaging
CASE STUDY 6.1 A Patient With Allergic Rhinitis
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
7. Neoplasia
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF CANCER PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
THE CELL CYCLE
Interphase
M-Phase (Mitotic Phase)
Exit and Reentry of the Cell Cycle
Control of the Cell Cycle
Checkpoints
Thought Questions 1 and 2
PROPERTIES OF NEOPLASMS
Tumor Terminology
Thought Questions 3 and 4
Characteristics of a Cancer Cell
Recently Identified Cancer Cell Characteristics
Thought Questions 5–7
CLINICAL ASPECTS OF NEOPLASIA
Pathophysiology of Cancer Manifestations and Treatment Sequelae
Biological Aspects of Gene Mutations and Cancer Risk Factors
Viral Causes of Cancer
Thought Questions 8–10
GENOTYPING IN CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Thought Questions 11 and 12
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Overview of Pediatric Cancer
Leukemias
Bone Tumors
Nervous System Tumors
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Physiological Processes of Aging that May Promote Cancer Development
Aging and Cancer: Practice Implications
CASE STUDY 7.1 A Patient With Breast Cancer
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
8. Blood and Clotting
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF BLOOD AND CLOTTING
RED BLOOD CELLS
Erythropoiesis
Thought Questions 1 and 2
Hemoglobin
Iron
Vitamin B12 and Folate
Thought Questions 3 and 4
GENERAL CONCEPTS IN ANEMIA
Iron-Deficiency Anemia (Microcytic Anemia)
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia (Macrocytic Anemia)
Anemia of Chronic Inflammation
Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease
Hemolytic Anemia
Thought Questions 5 and 6
HEMOSTASIS
Platelet Structure and Function
Modulation of Clotting and Anticlotting by Products of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism
Thought Questions 7 and 8
COAGULATION CASCADE
Laboratory Assessment of Clotting
Control of the Clotting Process
Thought Questions 9 and 10
THROMBOEMBOLIC STATES
Specific Disorders of Hypercoagulation
STATES OF EXCESS BLEEDING
Thrombocytopenia
von Willebrand Disease
Coagulation Cascade–Associated Disorders
Thought Questions 11 and 12
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Developmental Changes in Red Blood Cell Measures
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Hyperbilirubinemia
Sickle Cell Disease
Von Willebrand Disease
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Anemia
Changes in Bone Marrow
Hypercoagulability
Medication Effects on Blood and Clotting
CASE STUDY 8.1 A Patient With Pernicious Anemia
CASE STUDY 8.2 A Patient With Deep Venous Thrombosis
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
9. Circulation
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF CIRCULATORY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Homeostatic Functions of the Circulatory System
Organizing Principles of the Circulatory System
Structure and Properties of Blood Vessels
PROPERTIES AND DISORDERS OF LARGE ARTERIES
Overview of Large Artery Structure and Function
Atherosclerosis: The Most Common Disease of Large Arteries
Thought Questions 1–3
PROPERTIES AND DISORDERS OF ARTERIOLES
Overview of Arteriole Structure and Function
Thought Questions 4 and 5
Regulation of Blood Pressure
Thought Questions 6–8
Pathophysiology of Elevated Vascular Resistance: Hypertension
Pathophysiology of Decreased Blood Pressure and Peripheral Resistance: Shock
Thought Questions 9–11
PROPERTIES AND DISORDERS OF CAPILLARIES
Overview of Capillary Structure and Function
Thought Question 12
PROPERTIES AND DISORDERS OF VEINS
Overview of Venous Structure and Function, and Vulnerability to Pressure Elevations
Venous Disorders
Thought Questions 13 and 14
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Embryological Development of the Circulatory System
Blood Pressure and Pediatric Hypertension
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Vascular Changes with Aging
Aging-Associated Vascular Disorders
CASE STUDY 9.1 A Patient With Hypertension
CASE STUDY 9.2 A Patient With Edema
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
10. Heart
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF CARDIOVASCULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Homeostatic Functions of the Heart
Structural Organization of the Heart
Overview of Myocardial Cell Structure
Myocardial Oxygen Supply and Demand
CARDIAC ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Myocardial Cell Ion Channels and Transporters
Structure of the Cardiac Conduction System
Cardiac Cell Action Potentials
Thought Questions 1 and 2
Functional Aspects of Cardiac Action Potentials
Thought Question 3
Disorders of Cardiac Electrical Activity (Arrhythmias or Dysrhythmias)
Thought Questions 4 and 5
CARDIAC PERFORMANCE PHYSIOLOGY
Cardiac Muscle
Thought Questions 6-8
Cardiac Cycle
Thought Question 9
CORONARY BLOOD FLOW ANDISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE
Cardiac Vasculature
Cardiac Oxygen Supply and Demand
Coronary Artery Disease
Acute Coronary Syndromes
Thought Questions 10 and 11
HEART FAILURE
Left-Sided Heart Failure
Right-Sided Heart Failure
Management of Heart Failure
Thought Questions 12 and 13
STRUCTURAL CARDIAC DISORDERS
Normal Structure of the Heart and Cardiac Valves
Valve Diseases
Cardiomyopathies
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Normal Cardiac Development
Principles of Developmental Cardiac Anomalies
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Age-Related Changes in Cardiac Structure
Age-Related Changes in Cardiac Function
Summary of Age-Related Cardiac Changes
CASE STUDY 10.1 A Patient With Heart Failure Symptoms
CASE STUDY 10.2 A Patient With Angina
CASE STUDY 10.3 A Patient With Atrial Fibrillation
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
11. Lungs
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF LUNG STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Structures of the Respiratory System
Mechanisms of Respiration
Anatomy and Histology of Airways and Alveoli
Mechanisms of Lung Protection
Lung Volumes and Capacities
Lung–Chest Wall Interactions
Thought Questions 1–3
COMPLIANCE OF THE LUNGS AND CHEST WALL IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
Surfactant and Lung Compliance
Diseases of Decreased Lung Compliance
Chest Wall Compliance
Thought Question 4
AIRWAY RESISTANCE
Overview of Airway Resistance
Forced Expiratory Maneuvers are Used to Assess Airway Resistance
Concepts in Obstructive Lung Disease
Thought Questions 5–7
GAS EXCHANGE IN THE LUNGS
Overview of Gas Exchange
Oxygen–Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Hypoxia and Hypoxemia
Thought Questions 8 and 9
LUNG VASCULAR CONSIDERATIONS
Cardiac Consequences of Pulmonary Disease
Pulmonary Embolism
Pulmonary Edema
Pulmonary Hypertension
Thought Questions 10 and 11
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Lung Development
Respiratory Problems Associated with Preterm Birth
Lung Concerns in Infancy
Childhood Asthma
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Pneumonia
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema)
CASE STUDY 11.1 A Child With Asthma
CASE STUDY 11.2 A Patient With Chronic Bronchitis
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
12. Kidneys
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF KIDNEY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
The Kidney and Homeostasis
Overview of Body Fluid Compartments
Kidney Structure
Nephron Structure
Glomerular Function
Thought Questions 1 and 2
GLOMERULAR INJURIES
Glomerular Injury by Immune Mechanisms
Diabetic Nephropathy
Hypertensive Nephropathy
Thought Questions 3 and 4
REGULATION OF RENAL BLOOD FLOW AND GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE
Autoregulation of Renal Blood Flow
Extrinsic Regulation of RBF and GFR
Importance of eGFR as the Indicator of Renal Function
Factors Reducing RBF and GFR in Disease States
Thought Questions 5 and 6
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE RENAL TUBULE
Tubular Transport Overview
Segmental Tubular Processing
Thought Questions 7 and 8
REGIONAL KIDNEY FUNCTION
Corticomedullary Osmolarity Gradient
Production of Concentrated Urine and Homeostatic Regulation of Urine Composition and Osmolarity
CONCEPTS IN FLUID, ELECTROLYTE, AND ACID–BASE BALANCE
Renal Compensation in States of Hypovolemia and Hypotension
Renal Compensation in States of Hypervolemia and Hypertension
Thought Question 9
ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY–CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE CONTINUUM
Assessment of Kidney Function
Mechanisms and Manifestations of Acute Kidney Injury
Thought Question 10
Mechanisms and Manifestations of Chronic Kidney Disease
End-Stage Renal Disease
Thought Questions 11–13
APOL1 and CKD Progression
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Urinary System Development
Pediatric Disorders of Urinary Tract and Kidneys
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Age-Related Changes in the Kidney
Clinical Considerations in Older Adults
Summary of Age-Related Concerns
CASE STUDY 12.1 A Patient With Chronic Kidney Disease
CASE STUDY 12.2 A Patient With a Kidney Stone
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
13. Gastrointestinal Tract
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF GASTROINTESTINAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Alimentary Canal Structure and Motor Activity
Neural, Humoral, and Immune Regulation of Gastrointestinal Function
Thought Questions 1–3
PROPERTIES AND DISORDERS OF DIGESTIVE TRACT ORGANS
Mouth
Salivary Glands
Esophagus
Stomach
Thought Questions 4 and 5
Small and Large Intestines
Pancreas
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
Overview of Macronutrient Digestion and Absorption
Thought Questions 6 and 7
Principles of Micronutrient Absorption
Principles of Fluid and Electrolyte Absorption
IMMUNE-RELATED GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS
Celiac Disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
ABDOMINAL PAIN PATTERNS
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Hemorrhoids
INTESTINAL FAILURE AND SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME
Thought Questions 8 and 9
MALNUTRITION AND OBESITY
Lynch Syndrome
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Gastrointestinal Development and Function in Childhood
Gastroenteritis
Gastroesophageal Reflux
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
Intussusception
Hirschsprung Disease
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Age-Related Changes of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Age-Associated Alterations in Mastication
Dysphagia
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Older Adults
Altered Digestion
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Constipation
Diverticular Disease
CASE STUDY 13.1 A Patient With Peptic Ulcer Disease
CASE STUDY 13.2 A Teenage Boy With Celiac Disease
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
14. Liver
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF LIVER STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Liver Structure
Thought Questions 1 and 2
Liver Function
Thought Questions 3 and 4
Thought Question 5
LIVER DISORDERS
Measures of Liver Function and Dysfunction
Acute Liver Disorders
Thought Questions 6 and 7
Chronic Liver Disorders
Thought Questions 8 and 9
Hereditary Hemochromatosis
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Fetal and Childhood Liver Development
Hyperbilirubinemia
Other Liver Disorders Presenting in Children
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Aging and Hepatitis C
Alcoholic Liver Disease
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Autoimmune Hepatitis
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
CASE STUDY 14.1 A Patient With Hepatitis A Virus Infection
CASE STUDY 14.2 A Patient With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
15. Nervous System
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION AND NEUROANATOMY
Nervous System Function
Anatomy of the Nervous System
Neurons
Thought Questions 1–3
Synaptic Transmission
Thought Questions 4–7
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
Two Main Transmitter Families
Thought Questions 8 and 9
Neuromodulatory Transmitters: Amines
Neuromodulatory Transmitters: Peptides
Application of Neurotransmitter Concepts
Summary of Neurotransmitter Concepts
Thought Questions 10–12
SENSORY NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
Overview of Spinal Cord Anatomy
Somatic Sensory Function
Thought Questions 13 and 14
PAIN
Neurophysiology of Pain
Pharmacological Modulation of Pain
Nonpharmacological Modulation of Pain
Thought Questions 15–17
SPECIAL SENSES: VISION AND HEARING
Visual System
Auditory System
MOTOR ACTIVITY AND MOVEMENT DISORDERS
Motor Neurons and the Neuromuscular Junction
Lower Motor Neuron Lesions
Spinal Cord Reflex Circuits
Motor Pathways from the Pons and Medulla
Motor Pathways from the Cortex and Midbrain
Accessory Systems in Motor Control
Summary of Motor Disorders
Thought Questions 18–20
HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Functional Anatomy of Cognition and Behavior
Brain Mechanisms of Stress
Neurobiology of Depression, Anxiety, and Substance Use Disorders
Thought Questions 21–24
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Overview of Brain Development
Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Pediatric Seizures and Epilepsies
Developmental Delay
Headaches
Concussion
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Aging and Structural Changes in Cerebral Cortex
Cognitive Dysfunction
Neurodegenerative Disorders
Vascular Disease
Gait Dysfunction
Aging and Sense Organs
CASE STUDY 15.1 A Teenage Girl With Migraine
CASE STUDY 15.2 A Child With a Seizure Disorder
CASE STUDY 15.3 A Patient With Depression
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
16. Musculoskeletal System
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
OVERVIEW OF BONES AND SKELETAL PHYSIOLOGY
Bone Histology
Osteogenesis and Bone Remodeling
Thought Questions 1 and 2
BONE FRACTURES
Types of Fractures
Fracture Healing
Recovery from Fracture
Thought Questions 3 and 4
JOINTS
Functional Classification
Structural Classification
Thought Questions 5 and 6
STRAINS AND SPRAINS
Ankle Sprains
Structure and Conditions of the Knee
Thought Questions 7 and 8
HERNIATED DISC DISEASE
Pathophysiology of Disc Herniation
Anatomical Correlations
Clinical Presentation and Management
CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS
Causes of Cumulative Stress Injury
Clinical Syndromes
Thought Questions 9 and 10
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Musculoskeletal Development
Youth Sports and Musculoskeletal Injuries
Genetic Musculoskletal Conditions
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Aging and Muscle Integrity: Sarcopenia and Frailty
Bone Density And Osteoporosis
Joint Disorders In Older Adults
Parkinson Disease and Pisa Syndrome
CASE STUDY 16.1 A Patient With a Sprained Ankle
CASE STUDY 16.2 A Patient With Acute Gouty Arthritis
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
KEY POINTS
References
Suggested Resources
17. Endocrine System
THE CLINICAL CONTEXT
PRINCIPLES OF ENDOCRINE FUNCTION
Hormone Structures
Cell Signaling by Hormones
Circulating Hormone Levels
Hormone Control Axes
Thought Questions 1 and 2
HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY GLAND
STRUCTURE OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
FUNCTIONS OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
Thirst and Fluid Balance Control
Regulation of Uterine Contractility
Regulation of Body Energy Balance and Weight
Thought Questions 3–5
DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH THE PITUITARY GLAND
ENDOCRINE CELLS OF THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY
Corticotroph Cells: Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone
Lactotroph Cells: Prolactin
Somatotroph Cells: Growth Hormone
Gonadotroph Cells: Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
Thyrotroph Cells: Thyroid-stimulating Hormone
POSTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES
Vasopressin: Antidiuretic Hormone
Oxytocin
Thought Questions 6 and 7
ADRENAL GLANDS
DEVELOPMENT, STRUCTURE, AND FUNCTION OF THE ADRENAL GLANDS
ADRENAL CORTEX ZONES AND HORMONES
Zona Glomerulosa: Aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata: Glucocorticoids and Cortisol Production
Zona Reticularis: Androgens
ADRENAL MEDULLA AND CATECHOLAMINES
Adrenomedullary Dysfunction
Thought Questions 8–10
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS: HYPOTHALAMUS, PITUITARY, AND ADRENAL GLANDS
Endocrine Control of Growth
Genetic Disorder: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: HYPOTHALAMUS, PITUITARY, AND ADRENAL GLANDS
Decline in Growth Hormone
Adrenal Gland Changes
KEY POINTS: ENDOCRINE CONCEPTS; HYPOTHALAMUS, PITUITARY, AND ADRENAL GLANDS
THYROID GLAND
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE THYROID GLAND
THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS
THYROXINE METABOLISM
Alterations of Serum Thyroid-Binding Globulin Concentrations
THYROID HORMONE ACTIONS
Screening for Serum Thyroid Dysfunction
Thought Questions 11–13
THYROID DISORDERS
Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism
Nonthyroidal Illness with Altered Thyroid Function Tests (Euthyroid Sick Syndrome)
Thought Questions 14 and 15
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS: THYROID GLAND
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Thyroid Gland
CASE STUDY 17.1 A Patient With Graves Disease
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: THYROID
KEY POINTS: THYROID GLAND
THE GONADS
OVERVIEW OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Structure and Functions of the Female Reproductive System
Female Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Function
Thought Questions 16 and 17
Abnormalities of the Menstrual Cycle, Ovaries, and Endometrium
Thought Question 18
Breast Cancer
Menopausal Transition and Aging
Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women (and Older Men)
Thought Question 19
THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Structures and Functions of the Male Reproductive System
Regulation and Spermatogenesis of the Male Reproductive System
Prostate Disorders
Thought Questions 20 and 21
CASE STUDY 17.2 A Patient With Hyperparathyroidism
KEY POINTS: THE GONADS
METABOLISM AND THE PANCREAS
OVERVIEW
REVIEW OF METABOLISM
Metabolic Processes in the Fed State
Metabolic Processes in the Fasting State
Thought Questions 22 and 23
HORMONAL REGULATION OF METABOLISM
Insulin
Additional Hormones Regulating Metabolic Homeostasis
Thought Questions 24–26
DIABETES MELLITUS
Diagnostic Criteria
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
OTHER FORMS OF DIABETES AND DIABETES-RELATED CONDITIONS
Gestational Diabetes
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
SUMMARY
PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS: METABOLISM AND THE PANCREAS
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
GERONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: METABOLISM AND THE PANCREAS
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
CASE STUDY 17.3 A Patient With Gestational Diabetes
BRIDGE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Diabetes
KEY POINTS: METABOLISM AND THE PANCREAS
SUMMARY: ENDOCRINE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
References
Suggested Resources
List of Abbreviations
Index

Product information

Publisher‏:‎Springer Publishing Company; 1st edition (March 31, 2020)
Language‏:‎English
Paperback‏:‎840 pages
ISBN-10‏:‎0826177077
ISBN-13‏:‎978-0826177070
Item Weight‏:‎5.02 pounds
Dimensions‏:‎8.3 x 1.2 x 10.8 inches
0826177077

 

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