Networking All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies 8th Edition

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Your ultimate one-stop networking reference

Designed to replace that groaning shelf-load of dull networking books you’d otherwise have to buy and house, Networking All-in-One For Dummies covers all the basic and not-so-basic information you need to get a network up and running. It also helps you keep it running as it grows more complicated, develops bugs, and encounters all the fun sorts of trouble you expect from a complex system. Ideal both as a starter for newbie administrators and as a handy quick reference for pros, this book is built for speed, allowing you to get past all the basics―like installing and configuring hardware and software, planning your network design, and managing cloud services―so you can get on with what your network is actually intended to do.

In a friendly, jargon-free style, Doug Lowe―an experienced IT Director and prolific tech author―covers the essential, up-to-date information for networking in systems such as Linux and Windows 10 and clues you in on best practices for security, mobile, and more. Each of the nine minibooks demystifies the basics of one key area of network management.
Plan and administrate your network  Implement virtualization  Get your head around networking in the Cloud  Lock down your security protocols
The best thing about this book? You don’t have to read it all at once to get things done; once you’ve solved the specific issue at hand, you can put it down again and get on with your life. And the next time you need it, it’ll have you covered.

 

Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
Introduction
About This Book
Foolish Assumptions
Icons Used in This Book
Beyond the Book
Where to Go from Here
Book 1 Getting Started with Networking
Chapter 1 Welcome to Networking
Defining a Network
Delving into Network Lingo
Why Bother with a Network?
Accessing the Internet
Sharing files
Sharing resources
Sharing programs
Servers and Clients
Dedicated Servers and Peers
What Makes a Network Tick?
Putting the Pieces Together
Networks Big and Small
It’s Not a Personal Computer Anymore!
The Network Administrator
Chapter 2 Network Infrastructure
Introducing Infrastructure
Understanding Network Protocols and Standards
Recognizing Network Topology
Bus topology
Star topology
Expanding stars
Ring topology
Mesh topology
Considering Cable
Twisted-pair cable
RJ45 connectors
Patch panels and patch cables
Repeaters and hubs
Switches
Perusing Ports, Interfaces, and MAC Addresses
Pondering Packets
Contemplating Collisions
Dealing with Broadcast Packets
Examining Wireless Networks
Chapter 3 Switches, Routers, and VLANs
Understanding Switches
Learning
Forwarding
Flooding
Looking Deeper into Switches
Collision domains
Bridging
SFP ports and uplinks
Broadcast domains
Managed and unmanaged switches
Understanding Routers
Network address translation
Virtual private network
Understanding VLANs
Chapter 4 Cybersecurity
But We’re a Small Business — Do We Need Security?
The Two Pillars of Cybersecurity
Prevention
Recovery
Cybersecurity Frameworks
The NIST Cybersecurity Framework
Chapter 5 Servers and Virtualization
Understanding Network Operating Systems
Network services
File-sharing services
Multitasking
Directory services
Security services
What’s Important in a Server
Scalability
Reliability
Availability
Service and support
Components of a Server Computer
Motherboard
Processor
Memory
Hard drives
Network interfaces
Video
Power supply
Considering Server Form Factors
Tower case
Rack mount
Blade servers
Considering Virtualization
Chapter 6 Cloud Computing
Introducing Cloud Computing
Looking at the Benefits of Cloud Computing
Detailing the Drawbacks of Cloud Computing
Examining Three Basic Kinds of Cloud Services
Applications
Platforms
Infrastructure
Public Clouds versus Private Clouds
Introducing Some of the Major Cloud Providers
Amazon
Google
Microsoft
Getting Into the Cloud
Book 2 Understanding Network Protocols
Chapter 1 Network Protocols and Standards
Understanding Protocols
Understanding Standards
Seeing the Seven Layers of the OSI Reference Model
The physical layer
The data link layer
The network layer
Logical addressing
Routing
The transport layer
The session layer
The presentation layer
The application layer
Following a Packet through the Layers
The Ethernet Protocol
Standard Ethernet
Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
Beyond gigabit
The TCP/IP Protocol Suite
IP
TCP
UDP
Other Protocols Worth Knowing About
Chapter 2 TCP/IP and the Internet
What Is the Internet?
A Little Internet History
TCP/IP Standards and RFCs
The TCP/IP Protocol Framework
Network interface layer
Network layer
Transport layer
Application layer
Chapter 3 IP Addresses
Understanding Binary
Counting by ones
Doing the logic thing
Working with the binary Windows Calculator
Introducing IP Addresses
Networks and hosts
The dotted-decimal dance
Classifying IP Addresses
Class A addresses
Class B addresses
Class C addresses
Subnetting
Subnets
Subnet masks
Network prefix notation
Default subnets
The great subnet roundup
IP block parties
Private and public addresses
Pondering Ports
Understanding Network Address Translation
Chapter 4 Routing
Considering the Usefulness of Routers
Connecting to the Internet
Connecting remote locations
Splitting up large networks
Understanding Routing Tables
Chapter 5 DHCP
Understanding DHCP
Configuration information provided by DHCP
DHCP servers
How DHCP actually works
Understanding Scopes
Scopes, subnets, and VLANs
Feeling excluded?
Reservations suggested
How long to lease?
Working with a DHCP Server
Installing a Windows Server 2019 DHCP server
Configuring a new scope
How to Configure a Windows DHCP Client
Automatic private IP addressing
Renewing and releasing leases
Chapter 6 DNS
Understanding DNS Names
Domains and domain names
Fully qualified domain names
Top-Level Domains
Generic domains
Geographic domains
The Hosts File
Understanding DNS Servers and Zones
Zones
Primary and secondary servers
Root servers
Caching
Understanding DNS Queries
A real-life DNS example
Zone Files and Resource Records
SOA records
NS records
A records
CNAME records
PTR records
MX records
Reverse Lookup Zones
Working with the Windows DNS Server
Creating a new zone
Creating a new host record
How to Configure a Windows DNS Client
Chapter 7 TCP/IP Tools and Commands
Using the arp Command
Using the hostname Command
Using the ipconfig Command
Displaying basic IP configuration
Displaying detailed configuration information
Renewing an IP lease
Releasing an IP lease
Flushing the local DNS cache
Using the nbtstat Command
Using the netstat Command
Displaying connections
Displaying interface statistics
Using the nslookup Command
Looking up an IP address
Using nslookup subcommands
Displaying DNS records
Locating the mail server for an email address
Taking a ride through DNS-Land
Using the pathping Command
Using the ping Command
Using the route Command
Displaying the routing table
Modifying the routing table
Using the tracert Command
Book 3 Planning a Network
Chapter 1 Local Area Networks
Making a Network Plan
Being Purposeful
Taking Stock
What you need to know
Programs that gather information for you
Considering Cable
Surmising Switches
Planning the Network Topology
Planning the TCP/IP Implementation
Drawing Diagrams
More Questions Your Network Plan Should Address
Chapter 2 Wide Area Networks
Connecting to the Internet
Connecting with cable or DSL
Connecting with T1 lines
Connecting with fiber
Connecting with a cellular network
Choosing a Router
Choosing a small office router
Choosing an enterprise router
Choosing a cellular router
Securing Your Connection with a Firewall
Providing Redundancy for Your Internet Connection
Securing Connections to Remote Locations and Remote Users
Connecting Remote Offices with an Ethernet Private Line
Chapter 3 Server Architecture
Deciding How Many Servers You Need
Deciding Which Servers You Need
Domain controllers
DHCP servers
Mail servers
File servers
Print servers
Web servers
Database servers
Application servers
Backup servers
License servers
Deployment servers
Update servers
Virtualization management platform
Connecting Your Servers
Chapter 4 Virtualization Architecture
Understanding Virtualization
Understanding Hypervisors
Understanding Virtual Disks
Understanding Network Virtualization
Considering the Benefits of Virtualization
Choosing Virtualization Hosts
Understanding Windows Server 2019 Licensing
Chapter 5 Storage Architecture
Planning Disk Capacity
Considering Disk Drive Types
Hard disk drives
Solid state drives
Considering Drive Interfaces
SATA
SAS
Considering RAID
RAID 10
RAID 5
RAID 6
Considering Attachment Types
Direct attached storage
Storage area networks
Network-attached storage
Chapter 6 Backup Architecture
Backup Basics
Considering Three Basic Types of Backup
Where to Back Up Your Data
Backing Up to Tape
Looking closer at LTO
Hardware for tape backup
A word about tape reliability
About cleaning the heads
Backing Up to NAS
Using a Backup Appliance
Understanding File-Based Backup
Types of file-based backups
Normal backups
Copy backups
Daily backups
Incremental backups
Differential backups
Understanding Image-Based Backups and Virtualization
Backup Security
Chapter 7 Hyperconverged Infrastructure
Considering the Headaches of Traditional IT Architecture
Defining Hyperconverged Infrastructure
Discerning Deduplication
Understanding How Deduplication Works
Considering Backup
Digging into HCI Clusters
Incorporating HCI Into Your Plan
Book 4 Implementing a Network
Chapter 1 Network Hardware
Working with Cable
Cable categories
What’s with the pairs?
To shield or not to shield
When to use plenum cable
Sometimes solid, sometimes stranded
Installation guidelines
Getting the tools that you need
Pinouts for twisted-pair cables
Attaching RJ-45 connectors
Wall jacks and patch panels
Server rooms and distribution frames
Installing Switches
Chapter 2 Wireless Networks
Installing a Wireless Access Point
Configuring a Wireless Access Point
Basic configuration options
DHCP configuration
Connecting to a Wireless Network
Paying Attention to Wireless Network Security
Understanding wireless security threats
Intruders
Freeloaders
Eavesdroppers
Spoilers
Rogue access points
Securing your wireless network
Changing the password
Securing the SSID
Enabling WEP
Using WPA and WPA2
Using MAC address filtering
Placing your access points outside the firewall
Troubleshooting a wireless network
Checking for obvious problems
Pinpointing the problem
Changing channels
Fiddling with the antennas
Adding another access point
Help! I forgot my router’s password!
Chapter 3 Windows Clients
Configuring Network Connections
Joining a Domain
Chapter 4 Mac Networking
Basic Mac Network Settings
Joining a Domain
Connecting to a Share
Chapter 5 Network Printers
Configuring Network Printers
Adding a network printer
Accessing a network printer using a web interface
Chapter 6 Virtual Private Networks
Understanding VPN
Looking at VPN Security
Understanding VPN Servers and Clients
Book 5 Implementing Virtualization
Chapter 1 Hyper-V
Understanding the Hyper-V Hypervisor
Understanding Hyper-V Virtual Disks
Enabling Hyper-V
Getting Familiar with Hyper-V
Creating a Virtual Switch
Creating a Virtual Disk
Creating a Virtual Machine
Installing an Operating System
Chapter 2 VMware
Looking at vSphere
Getting Started with VMware Workstation Pro
Creating a Virtual Machine
Installing VMware Tools
Chapter 3 Azure
Looking at Azure Services
Creating an Azure Account
Examining the Azure Portal
Creating a Windows Virtual Machine
Managing an Azure Virtual Machine
Connecting to an Azure Virtual Machine
Chapter 4 Amazon Web Services
Looking at What Amazon Web Services Can Do
Creating an Amazon Web Services Account
Examining the Amazon Web Services Console
Creating a Windows Virtual Machine
Managing an Amazon Web Services Virtual Machine
Connecting to an Amazon Web Services Virtual Machine
Chapter 5 Desktop Virtualization
Introducing Desktop Virtualization
Considering Two Approaches to Desktop Virtualization
Looking at VMware’s Horizon View
Looking at Citrix XenApp
Book 6 Implementing Windows Server 2019
Chapter 1 Installing Windows Server 2019
Planning a Windows Server Installation
Checking system requirements
Reading the release notes
Deciding whether to upgrade or install
Considering your licensing options
Thinking about multiboot
Planning your partitions
Deciding your TCP/IP configuration
Choosing workgroups or domains
Before You Install . . .
Backing up
Checking the event logs
Applying updates
Disconnecting UPS devices
Running Setup
Considering Your Next Steps
Adding Server Roles and Features
Chapter 2 Configuring Windows Server 2019
Using the Administrator Account
Using Remote Desktop Connection
Enabling remote access
Connecting remotely
Using Microsoft Management Console
Working with MMC
Taking an overview of the MMC consoles
Customizing MMC
Chapter 3 Configuring Active Directory
What Directories Do
Remembering the Good Ol’ Days of NT Domains
PDCs and BDCs
Trusts
NetBIOS names
Active Directory to the Rescue
Understanding How Active Directory Is Structured
Objects
Domains
Organizational units
Trees
Forests
Creating a New Domain
Creating an Organizational Unit
Chapter 4 Configuring User Accounts
Understanding Windows User Accounts
Local accounts versus domain accounts
User account properties
Creating a New User
Setting User Properties
Changing the user’s contact information
Setting account options
Specifying logon hours
Restricting access to certain computers
Setting the user’s profile information
Resetting User Passwords
Disabling and Enabling User Accounts
Deleting a User
Working with Groups
Group types
Group scope
Default groups
Creating a group
Adding a member to a group
Working with User Profiles
Types of user profiles
Roaming profiles
Creating a Logon Script
Chapter 5 Configuring a File Server
Understanding Permissions
Understanding Shares
Considering Best Practices for Setting Up Shares
Managing Your File Server
Using the New Share Wizard
Sharing a folder without the wizard
Granting permissions
Chapter 6 Using Group Policy
Understanding Group Policy
Enabling Group Policy Management on Windows Server 2019
Creating Group Policy Objects
Filtering Group Policy Objects
Chapter 7 Typing Windows Commands
Using a Command Window
Opening and closing a command window
Editing commands
Using the Control menu
Special Command Tricks
Wildcards
Chaining commands
Redirection and piping
Environment variables
Batch files
The EventCreate Command
Net Commands
The Net Accounts command
The Net Computer command
The Net Config command
The Net Continue command
The Net File command
The Net Group command
The Net Help command
The Net Helpmsg command
The Net Localgroup command
The Net Pause command
The Net Session command
The Net Share command
The Net Start command
The Net Statistics command
The Net Stop command
The Net Time command
The Net Use command
The Net User command
The Net View command
The RunAs Command
Chapter 8 Using PowerShell
Using PowerShell
Understanding PowerShell Commands
Using Cmdlets
Using Parameters
Getting Help
Using Aliases
Using the Pipeline
Using Providers
Using Scripts
Book 7 Administering Microsoft Office 365
Chapter 1 Getting Started with Office 365 Administration
Introducing Office 365
Considering Office 365 Plans
Understanding Tenants
Creating an Office 365 Tenant
Creating a New User
Resetting a User’s Password
Disabling a User
Chapter 2 Configuring Exchange Online
Looking at Exchange Online Recipient Types
Examining the Exchange Admin Center
Managing Mailboxes
Creating an email alias
Delegating a mailbox
Converting a standard mailbox to a shared mailbox
Enabling or disabling mailbox apps
Creating a forwarder
Creating a Shared Mailbox
Chapter 3 Administering Teams
What Is Teams?
A Brief Look at How Teams Works
Microsoft 365 Group
SharePoint
OneDrive for Business
Using the Teams Admin Center
Managing Teams
Book 8 Implementing Linux
Chapter 1 Installing a Linux Server
Planning a Linux Server Installation
Checking system requirements
Choosing a distribution
Going virtual
Deciding on your TCP/IP configuration
Installing Fedora Server
Chapter 2 Linux Administration
On Again, Off Again
Logging in
Logging out
Shutting down
Wait, Where’s the Desktop?
Playing the Shell Game
Getting into Virtual Consoles
Using a Remote Console
Enabling the root User
Using the sudo Command
Understanding the file system
Looking at top-level directories
Browsing the file system
Using the RPM Package Manager
Listing packages
Installing packages
Removing packages
Updating packages
Editing Text Files with Vi
Starting vi
Saving changes and quitting Vi
Understanding Vi’s operating modes
Moving around in a file
Inserting text
Deleting text
Changing text
Copying and pasting text
Repeating commands
Other useful Vi commands
Using Cockpit
Managing User Accounts
Chapter 3 Basic Linux Network Configuration
Using Cockpit to Configure Network Interfaces
Working with Network Configuration Files
The Network file
The ifcfg files
The Hosts file
The resolv.conf file
Displaying Your Network Configuration with the ifconfig Command
Chapter 4 Running DHCP and DNS
Running a DHCP Server
Installing DHCP
Configuring DHCP
Starting DHCP
Running a DNS Server
Installing BIND
Editing BIND configuration files
named.conf
named.ca
Zone files
Restarting BIND
Chapter 5 Doing the Samba Dance
Understanding Samba
Installing Samba
Starting and Stopping Samba
Editing the smb.conf File
Configuring global settings
Creating a share
Using the Samba Client
Chapter 6 Running Apache
Installing Apache
Starting and Stopping Apache
Opening the Firewall for Apache
Confirming That Apache Is Running
Looking at the httpd.config File
Understanding Access Rules
Configuring Virtual Hosts
Chapter 7 Running Postfix
Understanding Email
Installing Postfix
Modifying main.cf
Using SpamAssassin
Installing SpamAssassin
Customizing SpamAssassin
Block listing and friends listing email addresses
Using the Mail Console Client
Chapter 8 Linux Commands
Command Shell Basics
Getting to a shell
Editing commands
Wildcards
Redirection and piping
Environment variables
Shell scripts
Running a command with root-level privileges
Directory- and File-Handling Commands
The pwd command
The cd command
The mkdir command
The rmdir command
The ls command
The cp command
The rm command
The mv command
The touch command
The cat command
Commands for Working with Packages and Services
The service command
The yum and dnf commands
Commands for Administering Users
The useradd command
The usermod command
The userdel command
The chage command
The passwd command
The newusers command
The groupadd command
The groupdel command
The gpasswd command
Commands for Managing Ownership and Permissions
The chown command
The chgrp command
The chmod command
Networking Commands
The hostname command
The ifconfig command
The netstat command
The ping command
The route command
The traceroute command
Book 9 Managing a Network
Chapter 1 Welcome to Network Administration
Knowing What Network Administrators Do
Choosing the Part-Time Administrator
Establishing Routine Chores
Managing Network Users
Patching Up Your Operating System and Software
Discovering Software Tools for Network Administrators
Building a Library
Getting Certified
CompTIA
Microsoft
Cisco
Gurus Need Gurus, Too
Helpful Bluffs and Excuses
Chapter 2 Managing Remotely
Enabling Remote Desktop Connection
Connecting Remotely
Using Keyboard Shortcuts for Remote Desktop
Configuring Remote Desktop Options
Setting the Display options
Setting the Local Resources options
Setting the Experience options
Setting the Advanced options
Using Remote Assistance
Enabling Remote Assistance
Inviting Someone to Help You via a Remote Assistance Session
Responding to a Remote Assistance Invitation
Chapter 3 Managing Network Assets
Introducing IT Asset Management
Why Bother?
Getting Organized
What to Track
Taking Pictures
Picking a Number
Making Labels
Tracking Software
Using Asset-Tracking Software
Other Sources of Asset-Tracking Information
Chapter 4 Solving Network Problems
When Bad Things Happen to Good Computers
Fixing Dead Computers
Ways to Check a Network Connection
A Bunch of Error Messages Just Flew By!
Double-Checking Your Network Settings
Time to Experiment
Who’s on First?
Restarting a Client Computer
Booting in Safe Mode
Using System Restore
Restarting Network Services
Restarting a Network Server
Looking at Event Logs
Documenting Your Trials and Tribulations
Chapter 5 Managing Software Deployment
Understanding Software Licenses
Using a License Server
Options for Deploying Network Software
Deploying software manually
Running Setup from a network share
Installing silently
Creating an administrative installation image
Pushing out software with group policy
Keeping Software Up to Date
Chapter 6 Managing Mobile Devices
The Many Types of Mobile Devices
Considering Security for Mobile Devices
Managing iOS Devices
Understanding the iPhone
Understanding the iPad
Integrating iOS devices with Exchange
Managing Android Devices
Looking at the Android OS
Perusing Android’s core applications
Integrating Android with Exchange
Book 10 Dealing with Cybersecurity
Chapter 1 Securing Your Users
Knowing the Difference between Authentication and Authorization
Following Password Best Practices
Securing the Administrator Account
Understanding Multifactor Authentication
Securing the Human Firewall
Establishing cybersecurity policies
Training
Phish testing
Chapter 2 Managing Firewalls and Virus Protection
Firewalls
The Many Types of Firewalls
Packet filtering
Stateful packet inspection (SPI)
Circuit-level gateway
Application gateway
Firewall Best Practices
The Built-In Windows Firewall
Configuring Windows Defender Firewall with Group Policy
Virus Protection
What is a virus?
Antivirus programs
Safe computing
Chapter 3 Dealing with Spam
Defining Spam
Sampling the Many Flavors of Spam
Using Antispam Software
Understanding Spam Filters
Looking at Three Types of Antispam Software
On-premises antispam
Antispam appliances
Cloud-based antispam services
Minimizing Spam
Chapter 4 Managing Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning
Assessing Different Types of Disasters
Environmental disasters
Deliberate disasters
Disruption of services
Equipment failure
Other disasters
Analyzing the Impact of a Disaster
Developing a Business Continuity Plan
Holding a Fire Drill
Appendixes
Appendix A Directory of Useful Websites
Certification
Hardware
Home and Small-Business Networking
Linux
Magazines
Microsoft
Network Standards Organizations
Reference
TCP/IP and the Internet
Wireless Networking
Smartphones
Appendix B Glossary
Index
EULA

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