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With a groundbreaking approach, Ecology: Evolution, Application, Integration, Second Edition, teaches students to place ecological problems in an evolutionary context. The text also helps students develop scientific reasoning skills
by modeling the process of science that researchers use to address fundamental ecological questions.

Table of contents :

Cover……Page 1
Half Title Page……Page 2
Title Page……Page 4
Copyright……Page 5
Dedication……Page 6
About the Author……Page 7
Contents in Brief……Page 8
Contents……Page 9
Preface……Page 18
Part 1: Organisms, the Environment, and Evolution……Page 28
1.1 What Is Ecology?……Page 30
1.2 What Important Ideas Will Emerge in Your Study of Ecology?……Page 34
What Fundamental Themes Will Emerge?……Page 35
What Methodologies Are Important in the Study of Ecology?……Page 36
Chapter 2: Adaptation and Evolution……Page 40
Change Darwin’s Thinking?……Page 41
How Do We View Darwin’s Theory Today?……Page 43
How Are Genes Organized in Populations?……Page 44
How Do We Model Changes in the Gene Pool?……Page 45
2.3 What Are the Mechanisms of Evolution?……Page 47
How Does Selection Change Allele Frequencies?……Page 48
THE HUMAN IMPACT – The Evolution of Resistance in Pathogens and Pests……Page 51
How Does Genetic Drift Change Allele Frequencies?……Page 52
What Are the Effects of Gene Flow?……Page 53
How Does Selection Lead to Adaptive Change?……Page 54
What Is the Relationship Between Variation and Natural Selection?……Page 55
How Do We Explain Imperfection?……Page 57
What Is the Adaptive Significance of Genetic Drift?……Page 59
Putting It All Together……Page 60
Chapter 3: Adaptations to the Physical Environment……Page 64
3.1 How Do Environmental Factors Limit Growth and Survival?……Page 65
DO THE MATH – Working with Bell Curves……Page 68
How Does Inactivity Protect the Species?……Page 69
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Profound Changes to Coral Reefs……Page 70
What Movement Patterns Are Protective?……Page 71
3.3 How Do Physiological Adaptations Alter the Organism’s Tolerance Limits?……Page 74
How Does the Tolerance Limit Vary Within and Between Individuals?……Page 75
How Do Organisms Adapt to the Thermal Environment?……Page 76
How Do Organisms Adapt to Water Stress?……Page 80
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Plant Adaptations to Life on Land……Page 82
ON THE FRONTLINE – The Effect of Salinity on Photosynthesis……Page 85
Putting It All Together……Page 86
4.1 What Determines Species Distributions?……Page 90
What Determines the Abiotic Conditions in Terrestrial Systems?……Page 91
DO THE MATH – The Concept of Statistical Significance……Page 92
How Do Abiotic Conditions Affect Species’ Distributions?……Page 95
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Historical Effects on Species Distributions……Page 96
ON THE FRONTLINE – Fire and Grazing in the Prairie Community……Page 98
4.2 What Are the Fundamental Types of Terrestrial Communities?……Page 99
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Global Warming and Ecological Communities……Page 103
BIOME 1: TROPICAL RAINFOREST……Page 105
BIOME 2: TROPICAL SAVANNA……Page 107
BIOME 3: DESERT……Page 109
BIOME 4: MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBLAND……Page 111
BIOME 5: TEMPERATE GRASSLAND……Page 113
BIOME 6: TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST……Page 115
BIOME 7: CONIFER FOREST……Page 117
BIOME 8: TUNDRA……Page 119
Putting It All Together……Page 121
Chapter 5: Freshwater and Marine Communities……Page 124
5.1 How Is Water Distributed Across the Earth?……Page 125
What Abiotic Factors and Processes Are Important in Freshwater Systems?……Page 126
ON THE FRONTLINE – The Relationship Between the Environment and Dispersal in Aquatic Plant Communities……Page 129
What Abiotic Factors and Processes Are Important in Marine Systems?……Page 130
DO THE MATH – Linear Regression……Page 132
5.3 What Kinds of Communities Occur in Freshwater Ecosystems?……Page 133
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Survival of the Everglades……Page 135
5.4 What Kinds of Communities Occur in Marine Ecosystems?……Page 136
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Not All Characteristics Are Adaptive……Page 139
Putting It All Together……Page 140
Chapter 6: Behavioral Ecology……Page 144
What Are the Fundamental Mechanisms of Behavior Interaction?……Page 145
How Does Selection Differ for Males and Females?……Page 146
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Measuring the Contributions of Environment and Genetics to Behavior……Page 147
What Ecological Factors Influence the Mating System?……Page 149
What Behaviors Are Important in Obtaining Resources?……Page 153
ON THE FRONTLINE – The Nature of Habitat Selection……Page 154
How Does the Environment Affect Movement?……Page 155
DO THE MATH – Using Hardy-Weinberg Analysis to Study Inbreeding……Page 158
What Are the Components of the Social System?……Page 160
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Conservation of Wild Populations……Page 162
Putting It All Together……Page 164
Chapter 7: The Ecology of Intraspecific Variation……Page 168
How Does the Environment Vary Across Space?……Page 169
How Does the Environment Vary in Time?……Page 170
7.2 What Are the Adaptive Responses to Local Environmental Variation?……Page 171
How Do Ecotypes Arise?……Page 172
What Factors Favor Phenotypic Plasticity?……Page 173
ON THE FRONTLINE – Melanism and Phenotypic Plasticity in Beetles……Page 174
What Mechanisms Increase Genetic Variation?……Page 175
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – The Evolution of Sex……Page 176
How Do We Measure Genetic Variation in Populations?……Page 177
DO THE MATH – Measuring Genetic Variation……Page 179
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Conservation Genetics in Small Populations……Page 181
Putting It All Together……Page 182
Part 2: Populations……Page 184
Chapter 8: Demography……Page 186
What Defines the Boundary of a Population?……Page 187
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – The Interaction of Evolution and Population Ecology……Page 189
How Do We Quantify the Number of Individuals in a Population?……Page 190
How Do We Measure the Spatial Distribution of Individuals in a Population?……Page 191
What Are the Key Demographic Characteristics of a Population?……Page 194
ON THE FRONTLINE – Herbivores and Trillium Sex Ratio……Page 199
8.3 How Do Populations Change in Time and Space?……Page 200
What Determines the Movement of Individuals Within and Among Populations?……Page 201
How Do Populations with Discrete Generations Grow?……Page 203
How Do Populations with Overlapping Generations Grow?……Page 205
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Human Reproductive Rates……Page 204
DO THE MATH – Matrix Algebra……Page 207
Putting It All Together……Page 208
Chapter 9: Population Regulation……Page 212
What Determines the Population Growth Rate?……Page 213
How Do Density-Dependent and Density-Independent Factors Affect Populations?……Page 214
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Biological Control of Pests……Page 215
What Is the Relationship Between Density Dependence and Stability?……Page 220
Can Populations Achieve Stability by Internal Regulatory Processes?……Page 221
9.3 How Do Regulatory Factors Interact?……Page 222
ON THE FRONTLINE – Long-Term Studies of Song Sparrow Population Dynamics……Page 224
9.4 How Do Populations Interact?……Page 225
Putting It All Together……Page 226
Chapter 10: Life History Strategies……Page 230
What Is Optimized in the Evolution of the Life History Strategy?……Page 231
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Teleology and Evolutionary Strategies……Page 232
10.2 Why Do Some Species Have Complex Life Cycles?……Page 233
What Are the Advantages of Metamorphosis?……Page 234
Why Have Resting Stages?……Page 235
Why Change Sex?……Page 236
Can Life Span Evolve?……Page 237
10.4 What Determines the Optimal Reproductive Pattern?……Page 238
Is Reproduction Always Maximized?……Page 239
What Are the Trade-Off s Among Reproductive Strategies?……Page 240
What Are the Ecological Correlates of Reproductive Trade-Off s?……Page 242
ON THE FRONTLINE – The Importance of Predation to Clutch Size……Page 243
THE HUMAN IMPACT – The Effect of Life History on the Risk of Extinction……Page 245
Putting It All Together……Page 248
Part 3: Communities: Interactions Among Species……Page 252
Chapter 11: Competition……Page 254
11.1 What Is Competition?……Page 255
How Do We Demonstrate That Competition Is Occurring?……Page 256
What Are the Mechanisms of Interspecific Competition?……Page 258
11.2 What Determines the Intensity of Competition?……Page 259
How Do We Quantify the Use of Resources?……Page 260
What Are the Effects of Disturbance on the Intensity of Competition?……Page 261
ON THE FRONTLINE – Distinguishing Resource and Nonresource Competition……Page 262
11.3 What Are the Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Competition?……Page 264
What Is the Immediate Effect of Competition?……Page 265
What Is the Evolutionary Effect of Competition?……Page 266
What Ecological Conditions Permit Coexistence?……Page 267
DO THE MATH – How to Quantify Niche Overlap……Page 268
Putting It All Together……Page 271
Chapter 12: Coevolution……Page 276
How Do Predators and Prey Adapt to One Another?……Page 277
DO THE MATH – How Long Should a Predator Remain in a Patch?……Page 281
ON THE FRONTLINE – Eyespots as Deterrents to Predation……Page 286
How Do Plants Respond to Herbivory?……Page 287
How Do Parasites and Their Hosts Coevolve?……Page 289
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – The Phylogenetic Relationship of Parasites and Hosts……Page 292
12.2 What Species Interactions Are Mutually Beneficial?……Page 294
What Forms Do Mutualisms Take?……Page 295
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Mutualism and Species Conservation……Page 297
Putting It All Together……Page 299
Chapter 13: The Structure of Communities……Page 304
What Is the Role of the Physical Environment in Community Composition?……Page 305
What Is the Relative Importance of Random and Deterministic Processes?……Page 306
DO THE MATH – The Null Hypothesis in Community Structure……Page 307
13.2 How Does Competition Structure the Community?……Page 310
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Competition from Invasive Species……Page 311
How Do Community Structure and Evolutionary History Interact?……Page 314
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Community Heritability and Structure……Page 315
What Is the Effect of Spatial Scale?……Page 316
How Do Coevolutionary Interactions Affect Community Structure?……Page 317
ON THE FRONTLINE – Niche Shifts After Competitive Release……Page 319
What Are the Roles of Resources and Disturbance?……Page 318
Putting It All Together……Page 322
Chapter 14: Ecological Succession……Page 326
14.1 What Are the Effects of Disturbance?……Page 327
How Frequent Is Disturbance?……Page 328
How Large Are Disturbances?……Page 329
How Does the Intensity of Disturbance Vary?……Page 330
How Does the Vegetation Change During Primary Succession?……Page 332
How Does the Vegetation Change During Secondary Succession?……Page 334
What Is the Nature of the Final Stage of Succession?……Page 335
ON THE FRONTLINE – Equilibrium and Climax in Spruce-Fir Forests……Page 338
DO THE MATH – Markov Chains……Page 340
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Succession and Conservation Biology……Page 342
What Plant Characteristics Are Adaptive as Conditions Change?……Page 343
What Mechanisms Effect Change?……Page 347
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Pioneer Species……Page 349
What Are the Direct and Indirect Effects of Consumers?……Page 350
Putting It All Together……Page 351
Part 4: Communities and Ecosystems……Page 354
Chapter 15: Species Diversity……Page 356
15.1 How Do We Measure Species Diversity?……Page 357
What Are the Spatial Patterns of Species Diversity?……Page 360
What Are the Ecological Consequences of Differences in Species Diversity?……Page 363
THE HUMAN IMPACT – The Sixth Mass Extinction……Page 364
What Determines Species Diversity in Equilibrium Communities?……Page 366
DO THE MATH – The Equilibrium Number of Species on an Island……Page 367
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – How Species Arise……Page 369
What Determines Species Diversity in Nonequilibrium Communities?……Page 370
Putting It All Together……Page 373
Chapter 16: Energy Flow and Trophic Structure……Page 376
What Are the Inorganic Sources of Energy?……Page 377
How Does the Energy of Primary Production Flow Through Consumers?……Page 379
How Is Primary Production Measured?……Page 382
What Are the Global Patterns of Primary Production?……Page 383
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – The Evolution of C4 Photosynthesis……Page 386
How Is Energy Lost from Ecosystems?……Page 388
DO THE MATH – Allometry……Page 390
ON THE FRONTLINE – The Length of Food Chains……Page 392
What Controls Energy Flow?……Page 395
Putting It All Together……Page 396
Chapter 17: Biogeochemical Cycles……Page 400
17.1 What Are the Major Patterns of Nutrient Movement?……Page 401
How Do Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Cycle in Ecosystems?……Page 402
DO THE MATH – Variance and Ecosystem Models……Page 405
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Oxygen and the Origin of Complex Life Forms……Page 406
What Are the Important Physical Mechanisms of Flux?……Page 407
What Are the Important Biological Mechanisms of Flux?……Page 408
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Soil Fertility and Nutrient Cycles……Page 409
ON THE FRONTLINE – The Nitrogen Paradox in Tropical Forests……Page 411
What Is the Role of Disturbance?……Page 413
Putting It All Together……Page 415
Part 5: Large-Scale and Applied Ecology……Page 418
Chapter 18: Conservation Biology……Page 420
18.1 What Are the Global Patterns of Species Richness and Extinction?……Page 421
What Are the Effects of Small Population Size?……Page 423
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Evolution of the Population Growth Rate……Page 426
What Role Does Habitat Play in Extinction?……Page 427
What Anthropogenic Mortality Factors Lead to Extinction?……Page 430
ON THE FRONTLINE – Effects of the Decline of Whitebark Pine……Page 431
DO THE MATH – Maximum Sustainable Yield……Page 433
What Characteristics Put Species at Risk?……Page 435
What Conservation Strategies Protect Species?……Page 436
THE HUMAN IMPACT – The Value of Biodiversity……Page 437
Putting It All Together……Page 440
Chapter 19: Landscape Ecology……Page 444
What Are the Components of a Landscape?……Page 445
What Are the Causes of Landscape Patterns?……Page 446
THE HUMAN IMPACT – Recovery of the Black-Footed Ferret……Page 447
What Role Does Technology Play?……Page 448
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Landscape Genetics……Page 449
What Are the Key Measures of Landscape Structure?……Page 451
DO THE MATH – Fractal Geometry……Page 452
19.3 What Are the Effects of Landscape Scale and Structure?……Page 454
How Does Landscape Structure Affect Populations and Communities?……Page 455
ON THE FRONTLINE – Equilibrium and Fire in Ponderosa Pine Forests……Page 456
How Do Disturbances Vary Spatially?……Page 458
Putting It All Together……Page 460
Chapter 20: Human Global Ecology……Page 464
20.1 What Is the History of the Human Environmental Impact?……Page 465
What Is Natural?……Page 466
What Are the Root Causes of the Human Impact?……Page 467
DO THE MATH – The Binomial Probability……Page 468
THE EVOLUTION CONNECTION – Genetically Modified Organisms……Page 469
What Are the Important Global Environmental Threats?……Page 471
ON THE FRONTLINE – Thermal Acclimation in Corals……Page 474
What Determines the Spatial Scale of Human Impacts?……Page 477
20.3 What Ecological Principles Can We Apply to Environmental Problems?……Page 479
THE HUMAN IMPACT – The Relationship of Humans to the Natural World……Page 480
Putting It All Together……Page 481
Figure Analysis: Answer Key……Page 484
Glossary……Page 499
References

Product information

Publisher‏:‎Oxford University Press; 2nd edition (July 14, 2017)
Language‏:‎English
Paperback‏:‎576 pages
ISBN-10‏:‎0190638885
ISBN-13‏:‎978-0190638887
Item Weight‏:‎2.65 pounds
Dimensions‏:‎10.9 x 8.4 x 0.7 inches
0190638885

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