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Known for its evolution theme and strong coverage of the relevance of ecology to everyday life and the human impact on ecosystems, the thoroughly revised Eighth Edition features expanded quantitative exercises, a restructured chapter on life history, a thoroughly revised species interactions unit including a chapter introducing the subject, and a new chapter on species interactions.

To emphasize the dynamic and experimental nature of ecology, each chapter draws upon current research in the various fields of ecology while providing accessible examples that help you understand species natural history, specific ecosystems, the process of science, and ecological patterns at both an evolutionary and demographic scale.

To engage you in using and interpreting data, a wide variety of Quantifying Ecology boxes walk through step-by-step examples of equations and statistical techniques.

 

Table of contents :

Cover……Page 1
Title Page……Page 2
Copyright Page……Page 3
Contents……Page 4
Preface……Page 16
Chapter 1 The Nature of Ecology……Page 22
1.2 Organisms Interact with the Environment in the Context of the Ecosystem……Page 23
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: Ecology Has Complex Roots……Page 24
1.3 Ecological Systems Form a Hierarchy……Page 25
1.4 Ecologists Study Pattern and Process at Many Levels……Page 26
1.5 Ecologists Investigate Nature Using the Scientific Method……Page 27
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 1.1: Classifying Ecological Data……Page 29
1.6 Models Provide a Basis for Predictions……Page 30
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 1.2: Displaying Ecological Data: Histograms and Scatter Plots……Page 31
1.8 Ecology Has Strong Ties to Other Disciplines……Page 33
Summary……Page 34
Further Readings……Page 35
PART 1 The Physical Environment……Page 37
Chapter 2 Climate……Page 39
2.1 Earth Intercepts Solar Radiation……Page 40
2.2 Intercepted Solar Radiation Varies Seasonally……Page 42
2.3 Air Temperature Decreases with Altitude……Page 43
2.4 Air Masses Circulate Globally……Page 46
2.5 Solar Energy, Wind, and Earth’s Rotation Create Ocean Currents……Page 47
2.7 Precipitation Has a Distinctive Global Pattern……Page 48
2.9 Irregular Variations in Climate Occur at the Regional Scale……Page 51
2.10 Most Organisms Live in Microclimates……Page 53
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: Urban Microclimates……Page 54
Summary……Page 55
Further Readings……Page 56
Chapter 3 The Aquatic Environment……Page 57
3.1 Water Cycles between Earth and the Atmosphere……Page 58
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: Groundwater Resources……Page 59
3.2 Water Has Important Physical Properties……Page 60
3.3 Light Varies with Depth in Aquatic Environments……Page 62
3.4 Temperature Varies with Water Depth……Page 63
3.5 Water Functions as a Solvent……Page 65
3.6 Oxygen Diffuses from the Atmosphere to the Surface Waters……Page 66
3.7 Acidity Has a Widespread Influence on Aquatic Environments……Page 67
3.8 Water Movements Shape Freshwater and Marine Environments……Page 68
3.9 Tides Dominate the Marine Coastal Environment……Page 69
3.10 The Transition Zone between Freshwater and Saltwater Environments Presents Unique Constraints……Page 70
Summary……Page 71
Further Readings……Page 72
Chapter 4 The Terrestrial Environment……Page 73
4.1 Life on Land Imposes Unique Constraints……Page 74
4.2 Plant Cover Influences the Vertical Distribution of Light……Page 75
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 4.1: Beer’s Law and the Attenuation of Light……Page 77
4.3 Soil Is the Foundation upon Which All Terrestrial Life Depends……Page 78
4.5 Soil Formation Involves Five Interrelated Factors……Page 79
4.6 Soils Have Certain Distinguishing Physical Characteristics……Page 80
4.7 The Soil Body Has Horizontal Layers, or Horizons……Page 81
4.8 Moisture-Holding Capacity Is an Essential Feature of Soils……Page 82
4.9 Ion Exchange Capacity Is Important to Soil Fertility……Page 83
4.10 Basic Soil Formation Processes Produce Different Soils……Page 84
Summary……Page 86
Study Questions……Page 87
Further Readings……Page 88
PART 2 The Organism and Its Environment……Page 89
Chapter 5 Ecological Genetics: Adaptation and Natural Selection……Page 91
5.1 Adaptations Are a Product of Natural Selection……Page 92
5.3 The Phenotype Is the Physical Expression of the Genotype……Page 93
5.5 Adaptation Is a Product of Evolution by Natural Selection……Page 94
5.6 Several Processes Can Function to Alter Patterns of Genetic Variation……Page 98
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 5.1: Hardy–Weinberg Principle……Page 99
5.7 Natural Selection Can Result in Genetic Differentiation……Page 101
5.8 Adaptations Reflect Trade-offs and Constraints……Page 102
FIELD STUDIES: Beren Robinson……Page 103
5.9 Organisms Respond to Environmental Variation at the Individual and Population Levels……Page 107
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: The Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance……Page 109
Summary……Page 110
Further Readings……Page 111
Chapter 6 Plant Adaptations to the Environment……Page 113
6.1 Photosynthesis Is the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Simple Sugars……Page 114
6.2 The Light a Plant Receives Affects Its Photosynthetic Activity……Page 115
6.4 Water Moves from the Soil, through the Plant, to the Atmosphere……Page 116
6.6 Plant Temperatures Reflect Their Energy Balance with the Surrounding Environment……Page 119
6.7 Carbon Gained in Photosynthesis Is Allocated to the Production of Plant Tissues……Page 120
6.9 Species of Plants Are Adapted to Different Light Environments……Page 122
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 6.1: Relative Growth Rate……Page 125
6.10 The Link between Water Demand and Temperature Influences Plant Adaptations……Page 127
FIELD STUDIES: Kaoru Kitajima……Page 129
6.11 Plants Vary in Their Response to Environmental Temperatures……Page 133
6.12 Plants Exhibit Adaptations to Variations in Nutrient Availability……Page 134
6.13 Wetland Environments Present Unique Constraints on Plant Adaptations……Page 136
Summary……Page 137
Further Readings……Page 139
Chapter 7 Animal Adaptations to the Environment……Page 140
7.1 Size Imposes a Fundamental Constraint on the Evolution of Organisms……Page 141
7.2 Animals Have Various Ways of Acquiring Energy and Nutrients……Page 143
7.3 Animals Have Various Nutritional Needs……Page 146
7.4 Mineral Availability Affects Animal Growth and Reproduction……Page 147
7.5 Animals Require Oxygen to Release Energy Contained in Food……Page 148
FIELD STUDIES: Martin Wikelski……Page 149
7.7 Animals Exchange Energy with Their Surrounding Environment……Page 151
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 7.1: Heat Exchange and Temperature Regulation……Page 153
7.8 Animals Fall into Three Groups Relative to Temperature Regulation……Page 154
7.9 Poikilotherms Depend on Environmental Temperatures……Page 155
7.10 Homeotherms Escape the Thermal Restraints of the Environment……Page 156
7.11 Endothermy and Ectothermy Involve Trade-offs……Page 157
7.13 Torpor Helps Some Animals Conserve Energy……Page 159
7.14 Some Animals Use Unique Physiological Means for Thermal Balance……Page 160
7.15 Maintenance of Water Balance for Terrestrial Animals Is Constrained by Uptake and Conservation……Page 161
7.16 Animals of Aquatic Environments Face Unique Problems in Maintaining Water Balance……Page 162
7.18 Daily and Seasonal Light and Dark Circles Influence Animal Activity……Page 163
7.19 Critical Day Lengths Trigger Seasonal Responses……Page 164
7.20 Activity Rhythms of Intertidal Organisms Follow Tidal Cycles……Page 165
Summary……Page 166
Further Readings……Page 168
PART 3 Populations……Page 169
Chapter 8 Properties of Populations……Page 171
8.2 The Distribution of a Population Defines Its Spatial Location……Page 172
8.3 Abundance Reflects Population Density and Distribution……Page 174
8.5 Populations Have Age Structures……Page 177
8.7 Individuals Move Within the Population……Page 179
8.8 Population Distribution and Density Change in Both Time and Space……Page 181
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: Human-Assisted Dispersal……Page 183
Study Questions……Page 184
Further Readings……Page 185
Chapter 9 Population Growth……Page 186
9.1 Population Growth Reflects the Difference between Rates of Birth and Death……Page 187
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 9.1: Derivatives and Differential Equations……Page 188
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 9.2: Exponential Model of Population Growth……Page 189
9.2 Life Tables Provide a Schedule of Age-Specific Mortality and Survival……Page 190
9.3 Different Types of Life Tables Reflect Different Approaches to Defining Cohorts and Age Structure……Page 191
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 9.3: Life Expectancy……Page 192
9.4 Life Tables Provide Data for Mortality and Survivorship Curves……Page 193
9.5 Birthrate Is Age-Specific……Page 194
9.7 Age-Specific Mortality and Birthrates Can Be Used to Project Population Growth……Page 195
9.8 Stochastic Processes Can Influence Population Dynamics……Page 197
9.10 Small Populations Are Susceptible to Extinction……Page 198
Summary……Page 199
Further Readings……Page 200
Chapter 10 Life History……Page 202
10.2 Reproduction Involves Both Benefits and Costs to Individual Fitness……Page 203
10.3 Age at Maturity Is Influenced by Patterns of Age-Specific Mortality……Page 204
10.4 Reproductive Effort Is Governed by Trade-offs between Fecundity and Survival……Page 206
10.5 There Is a Trade-off between the Number and Size of Offspring……Page 209
10.6 Species Differ in the Timing of Reproduction……Page 211
10.7 An Individual’s Life History Represents the Interaction between Genotype and the Environment……Page 213
10.8 Mating Systems Describe the Pairing of Males and Females……Page 214
10.9 Acquisition of a Mate Involves Sexual Selection……Page 215
10.10 Females May Choose Mates Based on Resources……Page 216
FIELD STUDIES: Alexandra L. Basolo……Page 217
10.11 Patterns of Life History Characteristics Reflect External Selective Forces……Page 219
Summary……Page 221
Further Readings……Page 222
Chapter 11 Intraspecific Population Regulation……Page 223
11.1 The Environment Functions to Limit Population Growth……Page 224
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: The Human Carrying Capacity……Page 225
11.2 Population Regulation Involves Density Dependence……Page 227
11.3 Competition Results When Resources Are Limited……Page 228
11.4 Intraspecific Competition Affects Growth and Development……Page 229
11.5 Intraspecific Competition Can Influence Mortality Rates……Page 231
11.6 Intraspecific Competition Can Reduce Reproduction……Page 233
FIELD STUDIES: T. Scott Sillett……Page 235
11.8 Dispersal Can Be Density Dependent……Page 237
11.10 Territoriality Can Function to Regulate Population Growth……Page 238
11.12 Density-Independent Factors Can Influence Population Growth……Page 240
Summary……Page 241
Study Questions……Page 242
Further Readings……Page 243
Chapter 12 Metapopulations……Page 244
12.1 Four Conditions Define a Metapopulation……Page 245
12.2 Metapopulation Dynamics Is a Balance between Colonization and Extinction……Page 247
12.3 Patch Area and Isolation Influence Metapopulation Dynamics……Page 248
12.5 Some Habitat Patches May Function as the Major Source of Emigrants……Page 251
12.6 Certain Factors Can Function to Synchronize the Dynamics of Local Populations……Page 252
12.7 Species Differ in Their Potential Rates of Colonization and Extinction……Page 253
12.8 The Concept of Population Is Best Approached by Using a Hierarchical Framework……Page 254
Summary……Page 255
Further Readings……Page 256
PART 4 Species Interactions……Page 257
Chapter 13 Species Interactions, Population Dynamics, and Natural Selection……Page 259
13.1 Species Interactions Can Be Classified Based on Their Reciprocal Effects……Page 260
13.2 Species Interactions Influence Population Dynamics……Page 261
13.3 Species Interactions Can Function as Agents of Natural Selection……Page 262
13.5 Species Interactions Can Be Diffuse……Page 266
13.6 Species Interactions Influence the Species’ Niche……Page 267
13.7 Species Interactions Can Drive Adaptive Radiation……Page 269
Study Questions……Page 270
Further Readings……Page 271
Chapter 14 Interspecific Competition……Page 272
14.2 There Are Four Possible Outcomes of Interspecific Competition……Page 273
14.3 Laboratory Experiments Support the Lotka–Volterra Equations……Page 274
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 14.1: Interpreting Population Isoclines……Page 276
14.5 Competition Is Influenced by Nonresource Factors……Page 277
14.6 Temporal Variation in the Environment Influences Competitive Interactions……Page 278
FIELD STUDIES: Katherine N. Suding……Page 279
14.7 Competition Occurs for Multiple Resources……Page 281
14.8 Relative Competitive Abilities Change along Environmental Gradients……Page 282
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 14.2: Competition under Changing Environmental Conditions: Application of the Lotka–Volterra Model……Page 284
14.9 Interspecific Competition Influences the Niche of a Species……Page 287
14.10 Coexistence of Species Often Involves Partitioning Available Resources……Page 288
Summary……Page 291
Study Questions……Page 292
Further Readings……Page 293
Chapter 15 Predation……Page 294
15.2 Mathematical Model Describes the Basics of Predation……Page 295
15.3 Model Suggests Mutual Population Regulation……Page 297
15.4 Functional Responses Relate Prey Consumed to Prey Density……Page 298
15.5 Predators Respond Numerically to Changing Prey Density……Page 301
15.6 Foraging Involves Decisions about the Allocation of Time and Energy……Page 302
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 15.1: A Simple Model of Optimal Foraging……Page 304
15.7 Foragers Seek Productive Food Patches……Page 305
15.10 Animal Prey Have Evolved Defenses against Predators……Page 306
15.12 Herbivores Prey on Autotrophs……Page 310
FIELD STUDIES: Rick A. Relyea……Page 311
15.13 Plants Have Evolved Characteristics That Deter Herbivores……Page 313
15.15 Predators Influence Prey Dynamics through Lethal and Nonlethal Effects……Page 315
Summary……Page 317
Further Readings……Page 318
Chapter 16 Parasitism and Mutualism……Page 319
16.1 Parasites Draw Resources from Host Organisms……Page 320
16.3 Direct Transmission Can Occur between Host Organisms……Page 321
16.6 Hosts Respond to Parasitic Invasions……Page 322
16.8 Parasites May Regulate Host Populations……Page 324
16.10 Mutualisms Involve Diverse Species Interactions……Page 326
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: Plagues Upon Us……Page 327
16.11 Mutualisms Are Involved in the Transfer of Nutrients……Page 328
FIELD STUDIES: John J. Stachowicz……Page 329
16.13 Mutualisms Are Often Necessary for Pollination……Page 332
16.14 Mutualisms Are Involved in Seed Dispersal……Page 333
16.15 Mutualisms Can Influence Population Dynamics……Page 334
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 16.1: A Model of Mutualistic Interactions……Page 335
Summary……Page 336
Further Readings……Page 337
PART 5 Community Ecology……Page 339
Chapter 17 Community Structure……Page 341
17.1 The Number of Species and Their Relative Abundance Define Diversity……Page 342
17.3 Keystone Species Influence Community Structure Disproportionately to Their Numbers……Page 344
17.5 Species within a Community Can Be Classified into Functional Groups……Page 345
17.6 Communities Have a Characteristic Physical Structure……Page 347
17.7 Zonation Is Spatial Change in Community Structure……Page 349
17.8 Defining Boundaries between Communities Is Often Difficult……Page 350
17.9 Two Contrasting Views of the Community……Page 352
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 17.1: Community Similarity……Page 353
Summary……Page 354
Further Readings……Page 355
Chapter 18 Factors Influencing the Structure of Communities……Page 356
18.1 The Fundamental Niche Constrains Community Structure……Page 357
18.2 Species Interactions Are Diffuse……Page 358
FIELD STUDIES: Sally D. Hacker……Page 359
18.3 Food Webs Illustrate Indirect Interactions……Page 361
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 18.1: Quantifying the Structure of Food Webs: Connectance……Page 362
18.4 Food Webs Suggest Controls of Community Structure……Page 365
18.5 Species Interactions along Environmental Gradients Involve Both Stress Tolerance and Competition……Page 366
18.6 Environmental Heterogeneity Influences Community Diversity……Page 369
18.7 Resource Availability Can Influence Plant Diversity within a Community……Page 370
Summary……Page 372
Further Readings……Page 373
Chapter 19 Community Dynamics……Page 374
19.1 Community Structure Changes Through Time……Page 375
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: American Forests……Page 377
19.3 Secondary Succession Occurs after Disturbances……Page 379
19.4 The Study of Succession Has a Rich History……Page 381
19.5 Succession Is Associated with Autogenic Changes in Environmental Conditions……Page 382
19.6 Species Diversity Changes during Succession……Page 384
19.7 Succession Involves Heterotrophic Species……Page 385
19.8 Systematic Changes in Community Structure Are a Result of Allogenic Environmental Change at a Variety of Timescales……Page 386
19.9 Community Structure Changes over Geologic Time……Page 388
19.10 The Concept of Community Revisited……Page 390
Summary……Page 392
Study Questions……Page 393
Further Readings……Page 394
Chapter 20 Landscape Dynamics……Page 395
20.1 Environmental Processes Create a Variety of Patches in the Landscape……Page 396
20.2 Transition Zones Offer Diverse Conditions and Habitats……Page 398
20.3 Patch Size and Shape Are Crucial to Species Diversity……Page 399
20.4 The Theory of Island Biogeography Applies to Landscape Patches……Page 403
20.5 Landscape Connectivity Permits Movement between Patches……Page 405
20.7 Frequency, Intensity, and Scale Determine the Impact of Disturbances……Page 406
FIELD STUDIES: Nick M. Haddad……Page 407
20.8 Various Natural Processes Function as Disturbances……Page 409
20.9 Human Disturbance Creates Some of the Most Long-Lasting Effects……Page 411
Summary……Page 412
Study Questions……Page 413
Further Readings……Page 414
PART 6 Ecosystem Ecology……Page 415
Chapter 21 Ecosystem Energetics……Page 417
21.2 Energy Fixed in the Process of Photosynthesis Is Primary Production……Page 418
21.3 Temperature, Water, and Nutrients Control Primary Production in Terrestrial Ecosystems……Page 419
21.4 Temperature, Light, and Nutrients Control Primary Production in Aquatic Ecosystems……Page 422
21.5 External Inputs of Organic Carbon Can Be Important in Aquatic Ecosystems……Page 424
21.6 Energy Allocation and Plant Life-Form Influence Primary Production……Page 425
21.7 Primary Productivity Varies with Time……Page 426
21.8 Primary Productivity Limits Secondary Production……Page 427
21.9 Consumers Vary in Efficiency of Production……Page 429
21.10 Ecosystems Have Two Major Food Chains……Page 431
21.11 Energy Flows through Trophic Levels Can Be Quantified……Page 432
FIELD STUDIES: Brian Silliman……Page 433
21.12 Consumption Efficiency Determines the Pathway of Energy Flow through the Ecosystem……Page 435
21.13 Energy Decreases in Each Successive Trophic Level……Page 436
Summary……Page 437
Further Readings……Page 438
Chapter 22 Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling……Page 440
22.1 Most Essential Nutrients Are Recycled within the Ecosystem……Page 441
22.2 Decomposition Is a Complex Process Involving a Variety of Organisms……Page 442
22.3 Studying Decomposition Involves Following the Fate of Dead Organic Matter……Page 444
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 22.1: Estimating the Rate of Decomposition……Page 445
22.4 Several Factors Influence the Rate of Decomposition……Page 446
FIELD STUDIES: Edward A. G. (Ted) Schuur……Page 449
22.5 Nutrients in Organic Matter Are Mineralized During Decomposition……Page 451
22.6 Decomposition Proceeds as Plant Litter Is Converted into Soil Organic Matter……Page 453
22.8 Decomposition Occurs in Aquatic Environments……Page 455
22.9 Key Ecosystem Processes Influence the Rate of Nutrient Cycling……Page 457
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: Nitrogen Fertilizers……Page 458
22.10 Nutrient Cycling Differs between Terrestrial and Open-Water Aquatic Ecosystems……Page 459
22.11 Water Flow Influences Nutrient Cycling in Streams and Rivers……Page 461
22.12 Land and Marine Environments Influence Nutrient Cycling in Coastal Ecosystems……Page 462
Summary……Page 464
Study Questions……Page 465
Further Readings……Page 466
Chapter 23 Biogeochemical Cycles……Page 467
23.2 Nutrients Enter the Ecosystem via Inputs……Page 468
23.5 The Carbon Cycle Is Closely Tied to Energy Flow……Page 469
23.6 Carbon Cycling Varies Daily and Seasonally……Page 471
23.7 The Global Carbon Cycle Involves Exchanges among the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land……Page 472
23.8 The Nitrogen Cycle Begins with Fixing Atmospheric Nitrogen……Page 473
23.9 The Phosphorus Cycle Has No Atmospheric Pool……Page 475
23.10 The Sulfur Cycle Is Both Sedimentary and Gaseous……Page 476
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: Nitrogen Saturation……Page 478
23.11 The Global Sulfur Cycle Is Poorly Understood……Page 479
23.12 The Oxygen Cycle Is Largely under Biological Control……Page 480
23.13 The Various Biogeochemical Cycles Are Linked……Page 481
Summary……Page 482
Study Questions……Page 483
Further Readings……Page 484
PART 7 Ecological Biogeography……Page 485
Chapter 24 Terrestrial Ecosystems……Page 487
24.1 Terrestrial Ecosystems Reflect Adaptations of the Dominant Plant Life-Forms……Page 489
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 24.1: Climate Diagrams……Page 491
24.2 Tropical Forests Characterize the Equatorial Zone……Page 492
24.3 Tropical Savannas Are Characteristic of Semiarid Regions with Seasonal Rainfall……Page 495
24.4 Grassland Ecosystems of the Temperate Zone Vary with Climate and Geography……Page 497
24.5 Deserts Represent a Diverse Group of Ecosystems……Page 500
24.6 Mediterranean Climates Support Temperate Shrublands……Page 503
24.7 Forest Ecosystems Dominate the Wetter Regions of the Temperate Zone……Page 505
24.8 Conifer Forests Dominate the Cool Temperate and Boreal Zones……Page 507
24.9 Low Precipitation and Cold Temperatures Define the Arctic Tundra……Page 509
Summary……Page 511
Further Readings……Page 513
Chapter 25 Aquatic Ecosystems……Page 514
25.2 Lakes Have Well-Defined Physical Characteristics……Page 515
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: Dams: Regulating the Flow of River Ecosystems……Page 517
25.3 The Nature of Life Varies in the Different Zones……Page 518
25.4 The Character of a Lake Reflects Its Surrounding Landscape……Page 519
25.5 Flowing-Water Ecosystems Vary in Structure and Types of Habitats……Page 520
25.6 Life Is Highly Adapted to Flowing Water……Page 522
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 25.1: Streamflow……Page 523
25.8 Rivers Flow into the Sea, Forming Estuaries……Page 525
25.9 Oceans Exhibit Zonation and Stratification……Page 527
25.10 Pelagic Communities Vary Among the Vertical Zones……Page 528
25.11 Benthos Is a World of Its Own……Page 529
25.12 Coral Reefs Are Complex Ecosystems Built by Colonies of Coral Animals……Page 530
25.13 Productivity of the Oceans Is Governed by Light and Nutrients……Page 531
Summary……Page 532
Further Readings……Page 534
Chapter 26 Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems……Page 535
26.2 Rocky Shorelines Have a Distinct Pattern of Zonation……Page 536
26.3 Sandy and Muddy Shores Are Harsh Environments……Page 538
26.4 Tides and Salinity Dictate the Structure of Salt Marshes……Page 539
26.5 Mangroves Replace Salt Marshes in Tropical Regions……Page 540
26.6 Freshwater Wetlands Are a Diverse Group of Ecosystems……Page 541
26.7 Hydrology Defines the Structure of Freshwater Wetlands……Page 544
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: The Continuing Decline of the Wetlands……Page 545
Summary……Page 547
Further Readings……Page 548
Chapter 27 Large-Scale Patterns of Biological Diversity……Page 549
27.1 Earth’s Biological Diversity Has Changed through Geologic Time……Page 550
27.3 Regional and Global Patterns of Species Diversity Vary Geographically……Page 551
27.4 Species Richness in Terrestrial Ecosystems Correlates with Climate and Productivity……Page 553
27.5 In Marine Environments, There Is an Inverse Relationship between Productivity and Diversity……Page 554
27.6 Species Diversity Is a Function of Processes Operating at Many Scales……Page 555
QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 27.1: Quantifying Biodiversity: Comparing Species Richness Using Rarefaction Curves……Page 556
Summary……Page 557
Further Readings……Page 558
PART 8 Human Ecology……Page 559
Chapter 28 Population Growth, Resource Use, and Sustainability……Page 561
28.1 Sustainable Resource Use Is a Balance between Supply and Demand……Page 563
28.4 Agricultural Practices Vary in the Level of Energy Input……Page 565
28.5 Swidden Agriculture Represents a Dominant Form of Agriculture in the Wet Tropics……Page 566
28.6 Industrialized Agriculture Dominates the Temperate Zone……Page 567
28.7 Different Agricultural Methods Represent a Trade-off between Sustainability and Productivity……Page 569
28.8 Sustainable Agriculture Depends on a Variety of Methods……Page 570
28.9 Sustainable Forestry Aims to Achieve a Balance between Net Growth and Harvest……Page 572
FIELD STUDIES: Deborah Lawrence……Page 573
28.10 Exploitation of Fisheries Has Lead to the Need for Management……Page 577
28.11 Fisheries Management Requires an Ecosystem Approach……Page 579
28.12 Economics Are a Key Factor Governing Resource Management……Page 581
Summary……Page 583
Further Readings……Page 585
Chapter 29 Habitat Loss, Biodiversity, and Conservation……Page 586
29.1 Habitat Destruction Is the Leading Cause of Current Species Extinctions……Page 587
29.2 Human-Introduced Invasive Species May Threaten Many Native Species……Page 589
29.3 Species Differ in Their Susceptibility to Extinction……Page 592
29.5 Regions of High Species Diversity Are Crucial to Conservation Efforts……Page 593
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: Wolf Reintroduction, Restoration, and Management……Page 596
29.6 Protecting Populations Is the Key To Conservation Efforts……Page 597
29.7 Reintroduction Is Necessary to Reestablish Populations of Some Species……Page 598
29.9 Habitat Conservation Involves Establishing Protected Areas……Page 600
29.10 Habitat Restoration Is Often Necessary in Conservation Efforts……Page 603
29.11 Environmental Ethics Is at the Core of Conservation……Page 604
Summary……Page 605
Study Questions……Page 606
Further Readings……Page 607
Chapter 30 Global Climate Change……Page 609
30.2 Atmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide Is Rising……Page 610
30.4 Atmospheric CO[sup(2)] Concentrations Affect CO[sup(2)] Uptake by Oceans……Page 612
FIELD STUDIES: Erika Zavaleta……Page 613
30.5 Plants Respond to Increased Atmospheric CO[sup(2)]……Page 615
30.6 Greenhouse Gases Are Changing the Global Climate……Page 617
30.7 Changes in Climate Will Affect Ecosystems at Many Levels……Page 619
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: Who Turned Up the Heat?……Page 623
30.8 Changing Climate Will Shift the Global Distribution of Ecosystems……Page 625
30.9 Global Warming Would Raise Sea Level and Affect Coastal Environments……Page 626
30.10 Climate Change Will Affect Agricultural Production……Page 627
30.11 Climate Change Will Directly and Indirectly Affect Human Health……Page 628
30.12 Understanding Global Change Requires the Study of Ecology at a Global Scale……Page 630
Summary……Page 631
Study Questions……Page 632
Further Readings……Page 633
References

Product information

Publisher‏:‎Benjamin Cummings; 8th edition (January 7, 2012)
Language‏:‎English
Paperback‏:‎704 pages
ISBN-10‏:‎0321736079
ISBN-13‏:‎978-0321736079
Item Weight‏:‎2.91 pounds
Dimensions‏:‎8.5 x 0.9 x 10.8 inches
0321736079

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