[PDF] Life: The Science of Biology, 9th Edition Free Download

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THE NEXT GREAT CHAPTER IN THE STORY OF LIFE

Visit the Life, 9e preview site at www.whfreeman.com/life9epreview

The science of biology evolves. The science classroom and lab evolve. In this edition, as always, Life: The Science of Biology evolves with them, in innovative, authoritative, and captivating ways.

From the first edition to the present, Life has set the standard as the most balanced experiment-based introductory biology text. This edition builds on this legacy, again teaching fundamental concepts and the latest developments by taking students step by step through the research that revealed them.
Also available, Volume Splits:—paperbound in full color!
Volume I: The Cell and Heredity (Chapters 1-20)
Volume II: Evolution, Diversity and Ecology (Chapters 1, 21-33, 54-59)
Volume III: Plants and Animals (Chapters 1, 34-53)

A GREENER LIFE

Another first, the new edition of Life is printed on paper earning the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) label, the “gold standard” in green paper products. Life paper includes 10% pre-consumer waste, 10% post-consumer waste, and is manufactured from wood from well-managed sustainable forests. Additionally, Life’s green initiatives include:
• 5% soy based ink
• Covers printed on stock with 10% post-consumer waste
• 100% recycled paper coverboards
• Digitized work flow to reduce paper waste

All of which also earn us Courier Printing Company’s Green Edition designation for reducing our environmental footprint. The environmental savings we have achieved on the first printing alone are:
• Number of trees saved: 469
• Air emissions eliminated (GHG’s): 52,240 pounds
• Water saved: 171,250 gallons
• Solid waste eliminated: 28,335 pounds

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Table of contents :
Cover Page ……Page 1
Title Page ……Page 4
Copyright Page ……Page 5
Dedication ……Page 6
The Authors ……Page 7
Contents in Brief ……Page 8
Investigating Life/Tools for Investigating Life ……Page 9
Preface ……Page 11
Reviewers for the Ninth Edition ……Page 15
LIFE’s Media and Supplements ……Page 18
Contents ……Page 22
1 Studying Life……Page 47
1.1 What Is Biology?……Page 48
1.2 How Is All Life on Earth Related?……Page 54
1.3 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?……Page 58
1.4 How Does Biology Influence Public Policy?……Page 62
2 Small Molecules and the Chemistry of Life ……Page 65
2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?……Page 66
2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?……Page 70
2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?……Page 75
2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?……Page 76
An Overview and a Preview……Page 80
3 Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids ……Page 83
3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?……Page 84
3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?……Page 87
3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?……Page 94
3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?……Page 99
4 Nucleic Acids and the Origin of Life ……Page 105
4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?……Page 106
4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?……Page 110
4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?……Page 114
4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?……Page 117
5 Cells: The Working Units of Life ……Page 121
5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?……Page 122
5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?……Page 127
5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?……Page 129
5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?……Page 145
5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?……Page 146
6 Cell Membranes ……Page 150
6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?……Page 151
6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?……Page 156
6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of MembraneTransport?……Page 159
6.4 What are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?……Page 165
6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?……Page 167
6.6 What Are Some Other Functions of Membranes?……Page 169
7 Cell Signaling and Communication ……Page 173
7.1 What Are Signals, and How Do Cells Respond to Them?……Page 174
7.2 How Do Signal Receptors Initiate a Cellular Response?……Page 177
7.3 How Is the Response to a Signal Transduced through the Cell?……Page 181
7.4 How Do Cells Change in Response to Signals?……Page 187
7.5 How Do Cells Communicate Directly?……Page 189
8 Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism……Page 193
8.1 What Physical Principles Underlie Biological Energy Transformations?……Page 194
8.2 What Is the Role of ATP in Biochemical Energetics?……Page 198
8.3 What Are Enzymes?……Page 201
8.4 How Do Enzymes Work?……Page 203
8.5 How Are Enzyme Activities Regulated?……Page 206
9 Pathways that Harvest Chemical Energy ……Page 213
9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?……Page 214
9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Metabolism?……Page 217
9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?……Page 222
9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?……Page 226
9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?……Page 229
10 Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight ……Page 234
10.1 What Is Photosynthesis?……Page 235
10.2 How Does Photosynthesis Convert Light Energy into Chemical Energy?……Page 237
10.3 How Is Chemical Energy Used to Synthesize Carbohydrates?……Page 244
10.4 How Do Plants Adapt to the Inefficiencies of Photosynthesis?……Page 247
10.5 How Does Photosynthesis Interact with Other Pathways?……Page 250
11 The Cell Cycle and Cell Division……Page 254
11.1 How Do Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Divide?……Page 255
11.2 How Is Eukaryotic Cell Division Controlled?……Page 257
11.3 What Happens during Mitosis?……Page 260
11.4 What Role Does Cell Division Play in a Sexual Life Cycle?……Page 266
11.5 What Happens during Meiosis?……Page 269
11.6 In a Living Organism, How Do Cells Die?……Page 274
11.7 How Does Unregulated Cell Division Lead to Cancer?……Page 275
12 Inheritance, Genes, and Chromosomes ……Page 281
12.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance?……Page 282
12.2 How Do Alleles Interact?……Page 293
12.3 How Do Genes Interact?……Page 295
12.4 What Is the Relationship between Genes and Chromosomes?……Page 298
12.5 What Are the Effects of Genes Outside the Nucleus?……Page 304
12.6 How Do Prokaryotes Transmit Genes?……Page 305
13 DNA and Its Role in Heredity ……Page 311
13.1 What Is the Evidence that the Gene is DNA?……Page 312
13.2 What Is the Structure of DNA?……Page 317
13.3 How Is DNA Replicated?……Page 321
13.4 How Are Errors in DNA Repaired?……Page 330
13.5 How Does the Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplify DNA?……Page 331
14 From DNA to Protein: Gene Expression ……Page 335
14.1 What Is the Evidence that Genes Code for Proteins?……Page 336
14.2 How Does Information Flow from Genes to Proteins?……Page 339
14.3 How Is the Information Content in DNA Transcribed to Produce RNA?……Page 341
14.4 How Is Eukaryotic DNATranscribed and the RNA Processed?……Page 345
14.5 How Is RNA Translated into Proteins?……Page 349
14.6 What Happens to Polypeptides after Translation?……Page 355
15 Gene Mutation and Molecular Medicine ……Page 361
15.1 What Are Mutations?……Page 362
15.2 How Are DNA Molecules and Mutations Analyzed?……Page 368
15.3 How Do Defective Proteins Lead to Diseases?……Page 372
15.4 What DNA Changes Lead to Genetic Diseases?……Page 375
15.5 How Is Genetic Screening Used to Detect Diseases?……Page 379
15.6 How Are Genetic DiseasesTreated?……Page 382
16 Regulation of Gene Expression ……Page 387
16.1 How Do Viruses Regulate Their Gene Expression?……Page 388
16.2 How Is Gene Expression Regulated in Prokaryotes?……Page 393
16.3 How Is Eukaryotic Gene Transcription Regulated?……Page 397
16.4 How Do Epigenetic Changes Regulate Gene Expression?……Page 401
16.5 How Is Eukaryotic Gene Expression Regulated After Transcription?……Page 405
17 Genomes ……Page 410
17.1 How Are Genomes Sequenced? ……Page 411
17.2 What Have We Learned from Sequencing Prokaryotic Genomes? ……Page 416
17.3 What Have We Learned from Sequencing Eukaryotic Genomes? ……Page 420
17.4 What Are the Characteristics of the Human Genome? ……Page 425
17.5 What Do the New Disciplines Proteomics and Metabolomics Reveal? ……Page 427
18 Recombinent DNA and Biotechnology ……Page 431
18.1 What Is Recombinant DNA? ……Page 432
18.2 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? ……Page 434
18.3 What Sources of DNA Are Used in Cloning? ……Page 437
18.4 What Other Tools Are Used to Study DNA Function? ……Page 438
18.5 What Is Biotechnology? ……Page 442
18.6 How Is Biotechnology Changing Medicine, Agriculture, and the Environment? ……Page 443
19 Differential Gene Expression in Development ……Page 450
19.1 What Are the Processes of Development? ……Page 451
19.2 Is Cell Differentiation Irreversible? ……Page 453
19.3 What Is the Role of Gene Expression in Cell Differentiation? ……Page 457
19.4 How Is Cell Fate Determined? ……Page 458
19.5 How Does Gene Expression Determine Pattern Formation? ……Page 462
20 Development and Evolutionary Change ……Page 471
20.1 What Is Evo-Devo? ……Page 472
20.2 How Can Mutations With Large Effects Change Only One Part of the Body? ……Page 474
20.3 How Can Differences among Species Evolve? ……Page 477
20.4 How Does the Environment Modulate Development? ……Page 478
20.5 How Do Developmental Genes Constrain Evolution? ……Page 481
21 Evidence and Mechanisms of Evolution ……Page 485
21.1 What Facts Form the Basis of Our Understanding of Evolution? ……Page 486
21.2 What Are the Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change? ……Page 493
21.3 How Does Natural Selection Result in Evolution? ……Page 496
21.4 How Is Genetic Variation Maintained within Populations? ……Page 501
21.5 What Are the Constraints on Evolution? ……Page 504
22 Reconstructing and Using Phylogenies ……Page 509
22.1 What Is Phylogeny? ……Page 510
22.2 How Are Phylogenetic Trees Constructed? ……Page 513
22.3 How Do Biologists Use Phylogenetic Trees? ……Page 518
22.4 How Does Phylogeny Relate to Classification? ……Page 521
23 Species and Their Formation ……Page 526
23.1 What Are Species?……Page 527
23.2 How Do New Species Arise? ……Page 529
23.3 What Happens When Newly Formed Species Come Together? ……Page 534
23.4 Why Do Rates of Speciation Vary? ……Page 538
24 Evolution of Genes and Genomes ……Page 543
24.1 How Are Genomes Used to Study Evolution? ……Page 544
24.2 What Do Genomes Reveal About Evolutionary Processes? ……Page 550
24.3 How Do Genomes Gain and Maintain Functions? ……Page 554
24.4 What Are Some Applications of Molecular Evolution? ……Page 557
25 The History of Life on Earth ……Page 563
25.1 How Do Scientists Date Ancient Events? ……Page 564
25.2 How Have Earth’s Continents and Climates Changed over Time? ……Page 566
25.3 What Are the Major Events in Life’s History? ……Page 571
26 Bacteria and Archaea: The Prokaryotic Domains ……Page 581
26.1 How Did the Living World Begin to Diversify? ……Page 582
26.2 What Are Some Keys to the Success of Prokaryotes? ……Page 584
26.3 How Can We Resolve Prokaryote Phylogeny? ……Page 590
26.4 What Are the Major Known Groups of Prokaryotes? ……Page 592
26.5 How Do Prokaryotes Affect Their Environments? ……Page 598
26.6 Where Do Viruses Fit into the Tree of Life? ……Page 600
27 The Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes ……Page 605
27.1 How Did the Eukaryotic Cell Arise? ……Page 606
27.2 What Features Account for Protist Diversity? ……Page 611
27.3 How Do Protists Affect the World Around Them? ……Page 614
27.4 How Do Protists Reproduce? ……Page 617
27.5 What Are the Evolutionary Relationships among Eukaryotes? ……Page 620
28 Plants without Seeds: From Water to Land ……Page 633
28.1 How Did the Land Plants Arise? ……Page 634
28.2 How Did Plants Colonize and Thrive on Land? ……Page 636
28.3 What Features Distinguish the Vascular Plants? ……Page 639
28.4 What Are the Major Clades of Seedless Plants? ……Page 644
29 The Evolution of Seed Plants ……Page 652
29.1 How Did Seed Plants Become Today’s Dominant Vegetation? ……Page 653
29.2 What Are the Major Groups of Gymnosperms? ……Page 657
29.3 What Features Contributed to the Success of the Angiosperms? ……Page 660
29.4 How Do Plants Support Our World? ……Page 667
30 Fungi: Recyclers, Pathogens, Parasites, and Plant Partners ……Page 671
30.1 What Is a Fungus? ……Page 672
30.2 How Do Fungi Interact with Other Organisms? ……Page 676
30.3 What Variations Exist among Fungal Life Cycles? ……Page 680
30.4 How Have Fungi Evolved and Diversified? ……Page 683
31 Animal Origins and the Evolution of Body Plans ……Page 690
31.1 What Characteristics Distinguish the Animals? ……Page 691
31.2 What Are the Features of Animal Body Plans? ……Page 694
31.3 How Do Animals Get Their Food? ……Page 696
31.4 How Do Life Cycles Differ among Animals? ……Page 699
31.5 What Are the Major Groups of Animals? ……Page 703
32 Protostome Animals ……Page 711
32.1 What Is a Protostome? ……Page 712
32.2 What Features Distinguish the Major Groups of Lophotrochozoans? ……Page 716
32.3 What Features Distinguish the Major Groups of Ecdysozoans? ……Page 724
32.4 Why Are Arthropods So Diverse? ……Page 726
An Overview of Protostome Evolution ……Page 734
33 Deuterostome Animals ……Page 737
33.1 What Is a Deuterostome? ……Page 738
33.2 What Are the Major Groups of Echinoderms and Hemichordates? ……Page 739
33.3 What New Features Evolved in the Chordates? ……Page 742
33.4 How Did Vertebrates Colonize the Land? ……Page 748
33.5 What Traits Characterize the Primates? ……Page 758
34 The Plant Body ……Page 764
34.1 What Is the Basic Body Plan of Plants? ……Page 765
34.2 How Does the Cell Wall Support Plant Growth and Form? ……Page 768
34.3 How Do Plant Tissues and Organs Originate? ……Page 770
34.4 How Do Meristems Build a Continuously Growing Plant? ……Page 773
34.5 How Has Domestication Altered Plant Form? ……Page 780
35 Transport in Plants ……Page 784
35.1 How Do Plants Take Up Water and Solutes? ……Page 785
35.2 How Are Water and Minerals Transported in the Xylem? ……Page 790
35.3 How Do Stomata Control the Loss of Water and the Uptake of CO2?……Page 793
35.4 How Are Substances Translocated in the Phloem? ……Page 795
36 Plant Nutrition ……Page 800
36.1 How Do Plants Acquire Nutrients? ……Page 801
36.2 What Mineral Nutrients Do Plants Require? ……Page 802
36.3 How Does Soil Structure Affect Plants? ……Page 804
36.4 How Do Fungi and Bacteria Increase Nutrient Uptake by Plant Roots? ……Page 807
36.5 How Do Carnivorous and Parasitic Plants Obtain a Balanced Diet? ……Page 812
37 Regulation of Plant Growth ……Page 816
37.1 How Does Plant Development Proceed? ……Page 817
37.2 What Do Gibberellins Do? ……Page 821
37.3 What Does Auxin Do? ……Page 824
37.4 What Are the Effects of Cytokinins, Ethylene, and Brassinosteroids? ……Page 829
37.5 How Do Photoreceptors Participate in Plant Growth Regulation? ……Page 833
38 Reproduction in Flowering Plants ……Page 839
38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually? ……Page 840
38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State? ……Page 847
38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually? ……Page 854
39 Plant Responses to Environmental Challenges ……Page 859
39.1 How Do Plants Deal with Pathogens? ……Page 860
39.2 How Do Plants Deal with Herbivores? ……Page 864
39.3 How Do Plants Deal with Climatic Extremes? ……Page 868
39.4 How Do Plants Deal with Salt and Heavy Metals? ……Page 873
40 Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation ……Page 877
40.1 How Do Multicellular Animals Supply the Needs of Their Cells? ……Page 878
40.2 How Does Temperature Affect Living Systems? ……Page 883
40.3 How Do Animals Alter Their Heat Exchange with the Environment? ……Page 884
40.4 How Do Mammals Regulate Their Body Temperatures? ……Page 889
41 Animal Hormones ……Page 896
41.1 What Are Hormones and How Do They Work? ……Page 897
41.2 How Do the Nervous and Endocrine Systems Interact? ……Page 903
41.3 What Are the Major Mammalian Endocrine Glands and Hormones? ……Page 906
41.4 How Do We Study Mechanisms of Hormone Action? ……Page 913
42 Immunology: Animal Defense Systems ……Page 918
42.1 What Are the Major Defense Systems of Animals? ……Page 919
42.2 What Are the Characteristics of the Nonspecific Defenses? ……Page 922
42.3 How Does Specific Immunity Develop? ……Page 925
42.4 What Is the Humoral Immune Response? ……Page 930
42.5 What Is the Cellular Immune Response? ……Page 932
42.6 How Do Animals Make So Many Different Antibodies? ……Page 936
42.7 What Happens When the Immune System Malfunctions? ……Page 939
43 Animal Reproduction ……Page 944
43.1 How Do Animals Reproduce without Sex? ……Page 945
43.2 How Do Animals Reproduce Sexually? ……Page 947
43.3 How Do the Human Male and Female Reproductive Systems Work? ……Page 954
43.4 How Can Fertility Be Controlled? ……Page 961
44 Animal Development ……Page 967
44.1 How Does Fertilization Activate Development? ……Page 968
44.2 How Does Gastrulation Generate Multiple Tissue Layers? ……Page 973
44.3 How Do Organs and Organ Systems Develop? ……Page 980
44.4 How is the Growing Embryo Sustained? ……Page 982
44.5 What Are the Stages of Human Development? ……Page 984
45 Neurons and Nervous Systems ……Page 988
45.1 What Cells Are Unique to the Nervous System? ……Page 989
45.2 How Do Neurons Generate and Transmit Electrical Signals? ……Page 993
45.3 How Do Neurons Communicate with Other Cells? ……Page 1001
46 Sensory Systems ……Page 1009
46.1 How Do Sensory Cells Convert Stimuli into Action Potentials? ……Page 1010
46.2 How Do Sensory Systems Detect Chemical Stimuli? ……Page 1012
46.3 How Do Sensory Systems Detect Mechanical Forces? ……Page 1015
46.4 How Do Sensory Systems Detect Light? ……Page 1021
47 The Mammalian Nervous System: Structure and Higher Function ……Page 1030
47.1 How Is the Mammalian Nervous System Organized? ……Page 1031
47.2 How Is Information Processed by Neural Networks? ……Page 1038
47.3 Can Higher Functions Be Understood in Cellular Terms? ……Page 1043
48 Musculoskeletal Systems ……Page 1051
48.1 How Do Muscles Contract? ……Page 1052
48.2 What Determines Muscle Performance? ……Page 1060
48.3 How Do Skeletal Systems and Muscles Work Together? ……Page 1063
49 Gas Exchange in Animals ……Page 1070
49.1 What Physical Factors Govern Respiratory Gas Exchange? ……Page 1071
49.2 What Adaptations Maximize Respiratory Gas Exchange? ……Page 1074
49.3 How Do Human Lungs Work? ……Page 1080
49.4 How Does Blood Transport Respiratory Gases? ……Page 1082
49.5 How Is Breathing Regulated? ……Page 1085
50 Circulatory Systems ……Page 1090
50.1 Why Do Animals Need a Circulatory System? ……Page 1091
50.2 How Have Vertebrate Circulatory Systems Evolved? ……Page 1093
50.3 How Does the Mammalian Heart Function? ……Page 1096
50.4 What Are the Properties of Blood and Blood Vessels? ……Page 1101
50.5 How Is the Circulatory System Controlled and Regulated? ……Page 1107
51 Nutrition, Digestion, and Absorption ……Page 1112
51.1 What Do Animals Require from Food? ……Page 1113
51.2 How Do Animals Ingest and Digest Food?……Page 1119
51.3 How Does the Vertebrate Gastrointestinal System Function? ……Page 1122
51.4 How Is the Flow of Nutrients Controlled and Regulated? ……Page 1129
52 Salt and Water Balance and Nitrogen Excretion ……Page 1136
52.1 How Do Excretory Systems Maintain Homeostasis? ……Page 1137
52.2 How Do Animals Excrete Nitrogen? ……Page 1139
52.3 How Do Invertebrate Excretory Systems Work? ……Page 1140
52.4 How Do Vertebrates Maintain Salt and Water Balance? ……Page 1142
52.5 How Does the Mammalian Kidney Produce Concentrated Urine? ……Page 1145
52.6 How Are Kidney Functions Regulated? ……Page 1152
53 Animal Behavior ……Page 1158
53.1 What Are the Origins of Behavioral Biology? ……Page 1159
53.2 How Can Genes Influence Behavior? ……Page 1162
53.3 How Does Behavior Develop? ……Page 1164
53.4 How Does Behavior Evolve? ……Page 1168
53.5 What Physiological Mechanisms Underlie Behavior? ……Page 1172
53.6 How Does Social Behavior Evolve? ……Page 1178
54 Ecology and the Distribution of Life ……Page 1185
54.1 What Is Ecology? ……Page 1186
54.2 Why Do Climates Vary Geographically? ……Page 1187
54.3 What Is a Biome? ……Page 1191
54.4 What Is a Biogeographic Region? ……Page 1202
54.5 How Is Life Distributed in Aquatic Environments? ……Page 1208
55 Population Ecology ……Page 1212
55.1 How Do Ecologists Study Populations? ……Page 1213
55.2 How Do Environmental Conditions Affect Life Histories? ……Page 1218
55.3 What Factors Limit Population Densities? ……Page 1219
55.4 How Does Habitat Variation Affect Population Dynamics? ……Page 1223
55.5 How Can Populations Be Managed Scientifically? ……Page 1225
56 Species Interaction and Coevolution ……Page 1230
56.1 What Types of Interactions Do Ecologists Study? ……Page 1231
56.2 How Do Antagonistic Interactions Evolve? ……Page 1233
56.3 How Do Mutualistic Interactions Evolve? ……Page 1239
56.4 What Are the Outcomes of Competition? ……Page 1243
57 Community Ecology ……Page 1248
57.1 What Are Ecological Communities? ……Page 1249
57.2 How Do Interactions among Species Influence Community Structure? ……Page 1253
57.3 What Patterns of Species Diversity Have Ecologists Observed? ……Page 1255
57.4 How Do Disturbances Affect Ecological Communities? ……Page 1259
57.5 How Does Species Richness Influence Community Stability? ……Page 1262
58 Ecosystems and Global Ecology ……Page 1266
58.1 What Are the Compartments of the Global Ecosystem? ……Page 1267
58.2 How Does Energy Flow through the Global Ecosystem? ……Page 1272
58.3 How Do Materials Cycle through the Global Ecosystem? ……Page 1274
58.4 What Services Do Ecosystems Provide? ……Page 1282
58.5 How Can Ecosystems Be Sustainably Managed? ……Page 1283
59 Conservation Biology ……Page 1287
59.1 What Is Conservation Biology? ……Page 1288
59.2 How Do Biologists Predict Changes in Biodiversity? ……Page 1290
59.3 What Factors Threaten Species Persistence? ……Page 1292
59.4 What Strategies Do Biologists Use to Protect Biodiversity? ……Page 1296
Appendix A: The Tree of Life ……Page 1305
Appendix B: Some Measurements Used in Biology ……Page 1312
Answers to Self-Quizzes ……Page 1314
Glossary ……Page 1316
Illustration Credits ……Page 1348
Index ……Page 1354

Product information

Publisher ‏ : ‎ W. H. Freeman; Ninth edition (October 15, 2009)
Language ‏ : ‎ English
Hardcover ‏ : ‎ 1267 pages
ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1429219629
ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1429219624

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