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The foremost text in this complex and fast-changing field, Medical Microbiology, 9th Edition, provides concise, up-to-date, and understandable explanations of key concepts in medical microbiology, immunology, and the microbes that cause human disease. Clear, engaging coverage of basic principles, immunology, laboratory diagnosis, bacteriology, virology, mycology, and parasitology help you master the essentials of microbiology?effectively preparing you for your coursework, exams, and beyond.

 

Access to this product, which may be at the discretion of your institution, is up to 3 years of online and perpetual offline access. Elsevier reserves the right to restrict or remove access due to changes in product portfolio or other market conditions.

    • Features significant new information on the human microbiome and its influence on the immune and other body systems, and new developments in microbial diagnosis, treatment, diseases, and pathogens.
    • Updates every chapter with state-of-the-art information and current literature citations.
    • Summarizes detailed information in tabular format rather than in lengthy text.
    • Provides review questions at the end of each chapter that correlate basic science with clinical practice.
    • Features clinical cases that illustrate the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.
    • Introduces microbe chapters with summaries and trigger words for easy review.
    • Highlights the text with clear, colorful figures, clinical photographs, and images that help you visualize the clinical presentation of infections.
    • Offers additional study features online, including 200 self-assessment questions, microscopic images of the microbes, videos, and a new integrating chapter that provides hyperlinks between the microbes, the organ systems that they affect, and their diseases.

 

  • Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.

Table of contents:

Cover
Title Page
Copyright
Contents
Preface
To Our Future Colleagues: The Students
Acknowledgments
Dedication
Section 1: Introduction
1 – Introduction to Medical Microbiology
Historical Perspective
Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi
Parasites
Immunology
Diagnostic Microbiology
Microbiology and Immunology in the Clinic
2 – Human Microbiome in Health and Disease
Core Microbiome
Evolution of the Microbiome and Normal Flora
Role of the Microbiome in Disease
Diagnostics and Therapeutics
Probiotics
Perspective
Bibliography
3 – Sterilization, Disinfection, and Antisepsis
Disinfection
Antisepsis
Mechanisms of Action
Moist Heat
Ethylene Oxide
Aldehydes
Oxidizing Agents
Halogens
Phenolic Compounds
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Alcohols
Bibliography
Section 2: General Principles of Laboratory Diagnosis
4 – Microscopy and In Vitro Culture
Microscopy
Microscopic Methods
Brightfield (Light) Microscopy
Darkfield Microscopy
Phase-Contrast Microscopy
Fluorescent Microscopy
Electron Microscopy
Examination Methods
Direct Examination
Differential Stains
Acid-Fast Stains
Fluorescent Stains
In Vitro Culture
Types of Culture Media
Enriched Nonselective Media
Selective Media and Differential Media
Specialized Media
Cell Culture
Bibliography
5 – Molecular Diagnosis
Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Transcription-Mediated Amplification
Strand Displacement Amplification
Loop-Mediated Amplification
Nucleic Acid Analysis
Nucleic Acid Sequencing
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Protein Analysis
Western Blot
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization–Time of Flight
Bibliography
6 – Serologic Diagnosis
Methods of Detection
Precipitation and Immunodiffusion Techniques
Immunoassays for Cell-Associated Antigen (Immunohistology)
Immunoassays for Antibody and Soluble Antigen
Serology
Bibliography
Section 3: Basic Concepts in the Immune Response
7 – Elements of Host Protective Responses
Soluble Activators and Stimulators of Innate and Immune Functions
Cells of the Immune Response
Hematopoietic Cell Differentiation
Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
Mononuclear Phagocyte System
Dendritic Cells
Lymphocytes
Bibliography
8 – Innate Host Responses
Soluble Components of Innate Responses
Antimicrobial Peptides and Chelators
Complement
Alternate Pathway
Lectin Pathway
Classical Pathway
Biological Activities of Complement Components
Membrane Attack Complex
Regulation of Complement Activation
Interferons
Cellular Components of Innate Responses
Neutrophils
Mast Cells, Basophils, and Eosinophils
Cells of the Monocyte-Macrophage Lineage
Myeloid and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells
Activation of Innate Cellular Responses
Chemotaxis and Leukocyte Migration
Phagocytic Responses
Normal Flora–Associated Responses
Inflammation
Proinflammatory Cytokines
Acute Inflammation
Acute-Phase Response
Sepsis and Cytokine Storms
Bridge to Antigen-Specific Immune Responses
Bibliography
9 – Antigen-Specific Immune Responses
T Cells
Cell-Surface Receptors of T Cells
Development of T Cells
Initiation of T-Cell Responses
Antigen Presentation to T Cells
Peptide Presentation By Class I and Class II Major Histocompatability Complex Molecules
Activation of CD4 T Cells and Their Response to Antigen
CD4 T-Helper Cell Functions
CD8 T Cells
INNATE T Cells
B Cells and Humoral Immunity
B cells
Immunoglobulin Types and Structures
Immunoglobulin D
Immunoglobulin M
Immunoglobulin G
Immunoglobulin A
Immunoglobulin E
Immunogenetics
Antibody Response
Time Course of the Antibody Response
Bibliography
10 – Immune Responses to Infectious Agents
Initiation of the Response
Phagocytic Responses
Antigen-Specific Response to Bacterial Challenge
Skin, Intestinal, and Mucosal Immunity
Bacterial Immunopathogenesis
Bacterial Evasion of Protective Responses
Antiviral Responses
Host Defenses Against Viral Infection
Innate Defenses
Interferon
Antigen-Specific Immunity
Humoral Immunity
T-Cell Immunity
Immune Response to Viral Challenge
Primary Viral Challenge
Secondary Viral Challenge
Viral Mechanisms for Escaping the Host Protective Responses
Viral Immunopathogenesis
Specific Immune Responses to Fungi
Specific Immune Responses to Parasites
Evasion of Immune Mechanisms by Parasites
Other Immune Responses
Immunopathogenesis
Hypersensitivity Responses
Cytokine Storm
Autoimmune Responses
Immunodeficiency
Immunosuppression
Hereditary Complement Deficiencies and Microbial Infection
Defects in Phagocyte Action
Deficiencies in Antigen-Specific Immune Responses
Bibliography
11 – Antimicrobial Vaccines
Passive Immunization
Active Immunization
Inactivated Vaccines
Future Directions for Vaccination
Immunization Programs
Bibliography
Section 4: Bacteriology
12 – Bacterial Classification, Structure, and Replication
Bacterial Classification
Macroscopic and Microscopic Distinction
Metabolic, Antigenic, and Genetic Distinction
Bacterial Structure
Cytoplasmic Structures
Cell Wall
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Gram-Negative Bacteria
External Structures
Bacteria With Alternative Cell Wall Structures
Structure and Biosynthesis of the Major Components of the Bacterial Cell Wall
Peptidoglycan (Mucopeptide, Murein)
Peptidoglycan Synthesis
Teichoic Acid
Lipopolysaccharide
Cell Division
Spores
13 – Bacterial Metabolism and Genetics
Metabolic Requirements
Metabolism, Energy, and Biosynthesis
Glycolysis and Fermentation
Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Human Bacterial Metabolism
Bacterial Genes and Expression
Transcription
Translation
Control of Gene Expression
Replication of DNA
Bacterial Growth
Population Dynamics
Bacterial Genetics
Mutation, Repair, and Recombination
Mutations and Their Consequences
Repair Mechanisms of DNA
Gene Exchange in Prokaryotic Cells
Mechanisms of Genetic Transfer Between Cells
Transformation
Conjugation
Transduction
Recombination
Genetic Engineering
Bibliography
14 – Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis
Colonization, Adhesion, and Invasion
Pathogenic Actions of Bacteria
Tissue Destruction
Toxins
Exotoxins
Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns
Immunopathogenesis
Mechanisms for Escaping Host Defenses
Summary
Bibliography
15 – Role of Bacteria in Disease
Bibliography
16 – Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial Diseases
Blood
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Upper Respiratory Tract Specimens
Lower Respiratory Tract Specimens
Ear and Eye
Wounds, Abscesses, and Tissues
Urine
Genital Specimens
Fecal Specimens
Bacterial Detection and Identification
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests
Bibliography
17 – Antibacterial Agents
β-Lactam Antibiotics
Penicillins
Cephalosporins and Cephamycins
Carbapenems and Monobactams
Glycopeptides
Lipopeptides
Polypeptides
Isoniazid, Ethionamide, Ethambutol, and Cycloserine
Inhibition of Protein Synthesis
Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines
Glycylclines
Oxazolidinones
Chloramphenicol
Macrolides
Ketolides
Clindamycin
Streptogramins
Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
Quinolones
Rifampin and Rifabutin
Metronidazole
Antimetabolites
Other Antibiotics
Bibliography
18 – Staphylococcus and Related Gram-Positive Cocci
Capsule and Slime Layer
Peptidoglycan and Associated Enzymes
Teichoic Acids and Lipoteichoic Acids
Surface Adhesion Proteins
Cytoplasmic Membrane
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Regulation of Virulence Genes
Defenses Against Innate Immunity
Staphylococcal Toxins
Cytotoxins
Exfoliative Toxins
Enterotoxins
Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1
Staphylococcal Enzymes
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Staphylococcus Aureus
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Cutaneous Infections
Bacteremia and Endocarditis
Pneumonia and Empyema
Osteomyelitis and Septic Arthritis
Staphylococcus Epidermidis and Other Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci
Endocarditis
Catheter and Shunt Infections
Prosthetic Joint Infections
Urinary Tract Infections
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Culture
Identification
Antibody Detection
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
19 – Streptococcus and Enterococcus
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Initial Host–Parasite Interactions
Toxins and Enzymes
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Suppurative Streptococcal Disease
Pharyngitis
Pyoderma
Erysipelas
Cellulitis
Necrotizing Fasciitis
Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome
Other Suppurative Diseases
Bacteremia
Nonsuppurative Streptococcal Disease
Rheumatic Fever
Acute Glomerulonephritis
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Antigen Detection
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Culture
Identification
Antibody Detection
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Streptococcus agalactiae
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Early-Onset Neonatal Disease
Late-Onset Neonatal Disease
Infections in Pregnant Women
Infections in Men and Nonpregnant Women
Laboratory Diagnosis
Antigen Detection
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Culture
Identification
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Other β-Hemolytic Streptococci
Viridans Streptococci
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Colonization and Migration
Tissue Destruction
Phagocytic Survival
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Pneumonia
Sinusitis and Otitis Media
Meningitis
Bacteremia
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Antigen Detection
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Culture
Identification
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Enterococcus
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
20 – Bacillus
Bacillus anthracis
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bacillus cereus
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
21 – Listeria and Related Gram-Positive Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Neonatal Disease
Infections in Pregnant Women
Disease in Healthy Adults
Meningitis in Adults
Primary Bacteremia
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Culture
Identification
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Respiratory Diphtheria
Cutaneous Diphtheria
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Culture
Identification
Toxigenicity Testing
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
22 – Mycobacterium and Related Acid-Fast Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Immunodiagnosis
Microscopy
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Culture
Identification
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Treatment
Chemoprophylaxis
Immunoprophylaxis
Control
• Other Slow-Growing Mycobacteria
• Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria
Physiology And Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
• Other Weakly Acid-Fast Bacteria
Bibliography
Case Study and Questions
23 – Neisseria and Related Genera
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Neisseria meningitidis
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Antigen Detection
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Culture
Identification
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Other Neisseria Species
Eikenella Corrodens
Kingella Kingae
Bibliography
24 – Haemophilus and Related Bacteria
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Meningitis
Epiglottitis
Cellulitis
Arthritis
Otitis, Sinusitis, and Lower Respiratory Tract Disease
Conjunctivitis
Chancroid
Other Infections
Laboratory Diagnosis
Specimen Collection and Transport
Microscopy
Antigen Detection
Culture
Identification
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Aggregatibacter
Pasteurella
For a case study and questions see StudentConsult. com
Bibliography
25 – Enterobacteriaceae
General Properties
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Endotoxin
Capsule
Antigenic Phase Variation
Type III Secretion Systems
Sequestration of Growth Factors
Resistance to Serum Killing
Antimicrobial Resistance
Escherichia coli
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Gastroenteritis
Enterotoxigenic E. coli
. coli. Two groups of E. coli responsible for enteric disease (enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC] and some Shiga toxin–producing E….
. coli. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) are a heterogeneous collection of strains characterized by their autoagglutination in a…
. coli. Nomenclature for this group of E. coli is confusing, referring to them as STEC, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), …
. coli. EIEC strains are rare in both developed and developing countries. Pathogenic strains are primarily associated with a few…
Extraintestinal Infections
. Most gram-negative rods that produce UTIs originate in the colon, contaminate the urethra, ascend into the bladder, and may mi…
. E. coli and group B streptococci cause the majority of CNS infections in infants younger than 1 month. Approximately 75% of th…
. Typically, septicemia caused by gram-negative rods, such as E. coli, most commonly originates from infections in the urinary o…
Salmonella
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Gastroenteritis
Septicemia
Enteric Fever
Asymptomatic Colonization
Shigella
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Yersinia
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Other Enterobacteriaceae
Klebsiella
Proteus
Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Morganella, and Serratia
Other General Properties
Laboratory Diagnosis
Culture
Biochemical Identification
Serologic Classification
Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
26 – Vibrio and Related Bacteria
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Vibrio vulnificus
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Immunoassays
Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests
Culture
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Aeromonas
Bibliography
27 – Pseudomonas and Related Bacteria
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Adhesins
Secreted Toxins and Enzymes
Antibiotic Resistance
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Pulmonary Infections
Primary Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections
Urinary Tract Infections
Ear Infections
Eye Infections
Bacteremia and Endocarditis
Other Infections
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Culture
Identification
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Burkholderia
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Acinetobacter
Moraxella
Bibliography
28 – Campylobacter and Helicobacter
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Antigen Detection
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Culture
Identification
Antibody Detection
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Helicobacter
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Antigen Detection
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Culture
Identification
Antibody Detection
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
29 – Miscellaneous Gram-Negative Rods
Bordetella
Other Bordetella Species
Brucella
Clinical Diseases
Cardiobacterium
Francisella
Legionella
Streptobacillus
Bibliography
30 – Clostridium
Clostridium difficile
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Clostridium perfringens
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Clostridium tetani
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Clostridium botulinum
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Other Clostridial Species
Bibliography
31 – Non–Spore-Forming Anaerobic Bacteria
Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods
Actinomyces
Lactobacillus
Mobiluncus
Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium)
Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium
Anaerobic Gram-Negative Cocci
Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Respiratory Tract Infections
Brain Abscess
Intraabdominal Infections
Gynecologic Infections
Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections
Bacteremia
Gastroenteritis
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Culture
Bacterial Identification
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
32 – Treponema, Borrelia, and Leptospira
Treponema
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Culture
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Antibody Detection
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Borrelia
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Lyme Disease
Relapsing Fever
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Culture
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Antibody Detection
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Leptospira
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Culture
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Antibody Detection
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
33 – Mycoplasma
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Answers
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
34 – Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Related Bacteria
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microscopy
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Culture
Antibody Detection
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Anaplasmataceae
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis
Human (Canine) Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis
Human Anaplasmosis
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Coxiellaceae
Coxiella burnetii
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
35 – Chlamydia
Chlamydia Trachomatis
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases
Trachoma
Adult Inclusion Conjunctivitis
Neonatal Conjunctivitis
Infant Pneumonia
Ocular Lymphogranuloma Venereum
Urogenital Infections
Lymphogranuloma Venereum
Laboratory Diagnosis
Antigen Detection
Nucleic Acid–Based Tests
Culture
Antibody Detection
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Chlamydia Pneumoniae
Chlamydia Psittaci
Bibliography
Section 5: Virology
36 – Viral Classification, Structure, and Replication
Classification
Virion Structure
Capsid Viruses
Enveloped Viruses
Viral Replication
Recognition of And Attachment to the Target Cell
Penetration
Uncoating
Macromolecular Synthesis
Dna Viruses
Rna Viruses
Viral Protein Synthesis
Assembly
Release
Spread of the Infection
Viral Genetics
Viral Vectors for Therapy
Bibliography
37 – Mechanisms of Viral Pathogenesis
Infection of the Target Tissue
Viral Pathogenesis
Cytopathogenesis
Lytic Infections
Nonlytic Infections
Oncogenic Viruses
Host Defenses Against Viral Infection
Immunopathology
Viral Disease
Epidemiology
Exposure
Transmission of Viruses
Maintenance of a Virus in the Population
Age
Immune Status
Other Host Factors
Geographic and Seasonal Considerations
Outbreaks, Epidemics, and Pandemics
Control of Viral Spread
Bibliography
38 – Role of Viruses in Disease
Oral and Respiratory Tract Infections
Flulike and Systemic Symptoms
Gastrointestinal Tract Infections
Exanthems, Hemorrhagic Fevers, and Arthritides
Infections of the eye
Infections of the Organs and Tissues
Infections of the Central Nervous System
Hematologic Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Viral Diseases
Viruses Spread by Transfusion and Transplantation
Viruses Spread by Arthropods and Animals
Syndromes of Possible Viral Etiology
Chronic and Potentially Oncogenic Infections
Infections in Immunocompromised Patients
Congenital, Neonatal, and Perinatal Infections
Bibliography
39 – Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
Cytology
Electron Microscopy
Viral Isolation and Growth
Cell Culture
Viral Detection
Detection of Viral Genetic Material
Genome Amplification
In Situ Analysis
Detection of Viral Proteins
Significance of Virus Detection
Viral Serology
Serologic Test Methods
Limitations of Serologic Methods
Bibliography
40 – Antiviral Agents and Infection Control
Virion Disruption
Attachment
Penetration and Uncoating
Rna Synthesis
Genome Replication
Protein Synthesis
Virion Assembly and Release
Stimulators of Host Innate Immune Protective Responses
Nucleoside Analogs
Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Penciclovir, and Famciclovir
Ganciclovir
Cidofovir and Adefovir
Azidothymidine
Dideoxyinosine, Dideoxycytidine, Stavudine, and Lamivudine
Ribavirin
Other Nucleoside Analogs
Nonnucleoside Polymerase Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Antiinfluenza Drugs
Immunomodulators
Infection Control
Bibliography
41 – Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Warts
Head and Neck Papillomas and Tumors
Anogenital Warts
Cervical Dysplasia and Neoplasia
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Polyomaviridae
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
42 – Adenoviruses
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Acute Febrile Pharyngitis and Pharyngoconjunctival Fever
Acute Respiratory Disease
Other Respiratory Tract Diseases
Conjunctivitis and Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis
Gastroenteritis and Diarrhea
Other Manifestations
Systemic Infection in Immunocompromised Patients
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Therapeutic Adenoviruses
Bibliography
43 – Human Herpesviruses
Structure of Herpesviruses
Herpesvirus Replication
Herpes Simplex Virus
Herpes Simplex Virus Proteins
Replication
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Direct Analysis of a Clinical Sample
Virus Isolation
Genome Detection
Serology
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Varicella-Zoster Virus
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Epstein-Barr Virus
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Heterophile Antibody–Positive Infectious Mononucleosis
Chronic Disease
Epstein-Barr Virus–Induced Lymphoproliferative Diseases
Hairy Oral Leukoplakia
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Cytomegalovirus
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology and Clinical Syndromes
Congenital Infection
Perinatal Infection
Infection in Children and Adults
Transmission via Transfusion and Transplantation
Infection in the Immunocompromised Host
Laboratory Diagnosis
Histology
Antigen and Genome Detection
Culture
Serology
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Clinical Syndromes
Other Human Herpesviruses
Human Herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus)
Bibliography
44 – Poxviruses
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Smallpox
Vaccinia and Vaccine-Related Disease
Orf, Cowpox, and Monkeypox
Molluscum Contagiosum
Hybrid Poxviruses for Gene Delivery and Vaccines
Bibliography
45 – Parvoviruses
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
46 – Picornaviruses
Structure
Replication
Enteroviruses
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Poliovirus Infections
Coxsackievirus and Echovirus Infections
Other Enterovirus Diseases
Laboratory Diagnosis
Clinical Chemistry
Culture
Genome and Serology Studies
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Rhinoviruses
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
47 – Coronaviruses and Noroviruses
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis and Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Noroviruses
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
48 – Paramyxoviruses
Structure and Replication
Measles Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Parainfluenza Viruses
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Mumps Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Human Metapneumovirus
Nipah and Hendra Viruses
Bibliography
49 – Orthomyxoviruses
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Thogotoviruses
Bibliography
50 – Rhabdoviruses, Filoviruses, and Bornaviruses
Physiology, Structure, and Replication
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment and Prophylaxis
Filoviruses
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Borna Disease Virus
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis
Clinical Syndromes
Epidemiology
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
51 – Reoviruses
Replication
Rotaviruses
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Orthoreoviruses (Mammalian Reoviruses)
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Coltiviruses and Orbiviruses
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
52 – Togaviruses and Flaviviruses
Structure and Replication of Alphaviruses
structure and Replication of Flaviviruses
Arbovirus Pathogenesis and Immunity
Immune Response
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Rubella Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Immune Response
Congenital Infection
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
53 – Bunyaviridae and Arenaviridae
Structure
Replication
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Arenaviruses
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis
Lassa and Other Hemorrhagic Fevers
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
54 – Retroviruses
Classification
Structure
Replication
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Geographic Distribution
Transmission
Populations at Highest Risk
Clinical Syndromes
Lymphadenopathy and Fever
Opportunistic Infections
Malignancies
Dementia Related to AIDS
Laboratory Diagnosis
Genomics
Serology
Immunologic Studies
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Education
Blood, Blood Product, and Organ Screening
Infection Control
Approaches to Vaccine Prophylaxis
Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus and Other Oncogenic Retroviruses
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Endogenous Retroviruses
Bibliography
55 – Hepatitis Viruses
Hepatitis A Virus
Structure
Replication
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Hepatitis B Virus
Structure
Replication
Pathogenesis and Immunity
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Acute Infection
Chronic Infection
Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Hepatitis C and G Viruses
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Hepatitis G Virus
Hepatitis D Virus
Structure and Replication
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Hepatitis E Virus
Bibliography
WHO Alert, Hepatitis C factsheet. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs164/en/. Accessed September 21, 2018
56 – Prion Diseases
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
Section 6: Mycology
57 – Fungal Classification, Structure, and Replication
The Importance of Fungi
Fungal Taxonomy, Structure, and Replication
Ascomycota (Ascomycetes)
Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
Glomerulomycota (Mucormycetes, formerly Zygomycetes)
Microspora (Microsporidia)
Classification of Human Mycoses
Supericial Mycoses
Cutaneous Mycoses
Subcutaneous Mycoses
Endemic Mycoses
Opportunistic Mycoses
Summary
Bibliography
Questions
58 – Pathogenesis of Fungal Disease
Blastomyces Dermatitidis
Modulation of Yeast and Host Immune System Interactions
Presentation of Surface Antigen Modulates the T-Helper Pathway of Immune Response
Coccidioides Immitis
Resistance of Conidia to Phagocytic Killing
Stimulation of an Ineffective TH2 Immune Response by C. immitis
Urease Production
Extracellular Proteinases
Molecular Mimicry
Histoplasma Capsulatum
Histoplasma capsulatum Resides in Host Macrophages
Modulation of the pH of the Phagolysosome
Iron and Calcium Uptake
Alteration of Yeast Cell Wall Composition
Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis
Hormonal Influences on Infection
Role of Cell Wall Glucans in the Pathogenesis of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Responses to an Immunodominant Antigen, gp43
Opportunistic Pathogens
Candida Species
Cryptococcus Neoformans
Aspergillus Species
Mycotoxins
Bibliography
59 – Role of Fungi in Disease
Bibliography
60 – Laboratory Diagnosis of Fungal Disease
Conventional Laboratory Diagnosis
Specimen Collection and Processing
Stains and Direct Microscopic Examination
Culture
Identifying Characteristics of Various Fungi
Immunologic, Molecular, and Biochemical Markers for Direct Detection of Invasive Fungal Infections
Bibliography
61 – Antifungal Agents
Azoles
Echinocandins
Antimetabolites
Allylamines
Griseofulvin
Topical Antifungal Agents
Investigational Antifungal Agents
Combinations of Antifungal Agents in the Treatment of Mycoses
Mechanisms of Resistance to Antifungal Agents
Polyenes
Azoles
Echinocandins
Flucytosine
Allylamines
Clinical Factors Contributing to Resistance
Antifungal Susceptibility Testing
Bibliography
62 – Superficial and Cutaneous Mycoses
Pityriasis (Tinea) Versicolor
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Tinea Nigra
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
White Piedra
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Black Piedra
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Cutaneous Mycoses
Dermatophytoses
Morphology
Ecology and Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Onychomycosis Caused by Nondermatophytic Fungi
Bibliography
63 – Subcutaneous Mycoses
Lymphocutaneous Sporotrichosis
MORPHOLOGY
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT
Chromoblastomycosis
MORPHOLOGY
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT
Eumycotic Mycetoma
MORPHOLOGY
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT
Subcutaneous Entomophthoromycosis
MORPHOLOGY
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT
Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis
MORPHOLOGY
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT
Bibliography
64 – Systemic Mycoses Caused by Dimorphic Fungi
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Coccidioidomycosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Emergomycosis and Adiaspiromycosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Histoplasmosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Histoplasmosis Capsulati
Histoplasmosis duboisii
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Paracoccidioidomycosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Talaromycosis (Penicilliosis) marneffei
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
65 – Opportunistic Mycoses
Candidiasis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Opportunistic Mycoses Caused by Cryptococcus Neoformans and Other Noncandidal Yeastlike Fungi
Cryptococcosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Other Mycoses Caused By Yeastlike Fungi
Microsporidia
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Aspergillosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment and Prevention
Mucormycosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Mycoses Caused by Other Hyaline Molds
Phaeohyphomycosis
Pneumocystosis
Bibliography
66 – Fungal and Fungal-Like Infections of Unusual or Uncertain Etiology
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Chlorellosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Lacaziosis (Lobomycosis)
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Protothecosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Pythiosis Insidiosi
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Lagenidiosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndrome
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Rhinosporidiosis
Morphology
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndrome
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Section 7: Parasitology
67 – Parasitic Classification, Structure, and Replication
Importance of Parasites
Classification and Structure
Protists (Protozoa)
Metamonada: Giardia, Enteromonas, Chilomastix, Retortamonas, Dientamoeba, Trichomonas, Pentatrichomonas
Discicristata: Naegleria, Leishmania, Trypanosoma
Amoebozoa: Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, Entamoeba, Endolimax, Iodamoeba
Apicomplexa: Babesia, Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma
Ciliophora: Neobalantidium (Formerly Balantidium) coli
Stramenopila (Formerly Chromista): Blastocystis
Animalia (Metazoa)
Helminths
.The Nematoda clade consists of the roundworms, which have cylindric bodies. The sexes of roundworms are separate, and these org…
.The Platyhelminthes clade consists of the flatworms, which have flattened bodies that are leaflike or resemble ribbon segments….
Arthropoda
.The Myriapoda consist of two classes of medical importance: Chilopoda (centipedes) and Diplopoda (millipedes). Some centipedes …
.The crustaceans include familiar aquatic forms, such as crabs, crayfish, shrimp, copepods, and pentastomids. Several are involv…
.Within the Chelicerata only the class Arachnida contains medically important species, such as mites, ticks, spiders, and scorpi…
.The Hexapoda of medical importance are contained in the class Insecta and consist of familiar aquatic and terrestrial forms, su…
Physiology and Replication
Protozoa
Animalia (Metazoa)
Helminths
Arthropods
Summary
Bibliography
68 – Pathogenesis of Parasitic Diseases
Adherence and Replication
Cell and Tissue Damage
Disruption, Evasion, and Inactivation of Host Defenses
Bibliography
69 – Role of Parasites in Disease
Bibliography
70 – Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasitic Disease
General Diagnostic Considerations
Parasitic Infections of the Intestinal and Urogenital Tracts
Fecal Specimen Collection
Techniques of Stool Examination
Macroscopic Examination
Direct Wet Mount
Concentration
Permanently Stained Slides
Collection and Examination of Specimens Other Than Stool
Perianal Specimens
Sigmoidoscopic Material
Duodenal Aspirates
Liver Abscess Aspirate
Sputum
Urine
Urogenital Specimens
Parasitic Infections of Blood and Tissue
Blood Films
Specimens Other Than Blood
Alternatives to Microscopy
Immunodiagnostics
Molecular Diagnostic Approaches
Culture
Animal Inoculation
Xenodiagnosis
Bibliography
71 – Antiparasitic Agents
Drug Resistance
Antiparasitic Agents
Antiprotozoal Agents
Heavy Metals
Quinoline Derivatives
Folic Acid Antagonists
Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis
Diamidines
Nitroimidazoles
Sesquiterpenes
Atovaquone-Proguanil (Malarone)
Miltefosine
Nitazoxanide
Other Antiprotozoal Agents
Anthelmintic Agents
Benzimidazoles
Tetrahydropyrimidines
Piperazines
Avermectins
Pyrazinoisoquinolines
Phenols
Other Anthelmintic Agents
Bibliography
72 – Intestinal and Urogenital Protozoa
Entamoeba Histolytica
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Other Intestinal Amebae
Ciliates (Metamonada [Formerly Flagellates] and Ciliophora)
Giardia Duodenalis (G. Lamblia; G. Intestinalis)
Physiology and Structure
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Dientamoeba Fragilis
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Trichomonas Vaginalis
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Neobalantidium Coli
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Sporozoa (Apicomplexa)
Cystoisospora (Formerly Isospora) Belli
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Sarcocystis Species
Cryptosporidium Species
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Cyclospora Species
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
73 – Blood and Tissue Protozoa
Plasmodium Species
Plasmodium Falciparum
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Plasmodium Knowlesi
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Plasmodium Vivax
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Plasmodium Ovale
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Plasmodium Malariae
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Babesia Species
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Toxoplasma gondii
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Sarcocystis lindemanni
Free-Living Amebae
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Leishmania
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Trypanosomes
Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Trypanosoma Brucei Rhodesiense
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Trypanosoma Cruzi
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, And Control
Bibliography
74 – Nematodes
Enterobius vermicularis
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Ascaris lumbricoides
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Toxocara and Baylisascaris
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Hookworms
Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Ancylostoma Braziliense
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Strongyloides stercoralis
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Trichinella spiralis
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Loa loa
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Mansonella Species
Mansonella Perstans
Mansonella Ozzardi
Mansonella Streptocerca
Onchocerca volvulus
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Dirofilaria immitis
Dracunculus medinensis
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
75 – Trematodes
Fasciolopsis buski
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Fasciola hepatica
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Clonorchis sinensis
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Paragonimus westermani
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Schistosomes
Schistosoma Mansoni
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Schistosoma Japonicum
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Schistosoma Haematobium
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Cercarial Dermatitis
Bibliography
76 – Cestodes
Taenia solium
PHYSIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL
Cysticercosis
PHYSIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL
Taenia saginata
PHYSIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL
Diphyllobothrium latum
PHYSIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL
Sparganosis
PHYSIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL
Echinococcus granulosus
PHYSIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL
Echinococcus multilocularis
PHYSIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL
Hymenolepis nana
PHYSIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL
Hymenolepis diminuta
PHYSIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL
Dipylidium caninum
PHYSIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CLINICAL SYNDROMES
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL
Bibliography
77 – Arthropods
Myriapoda
CENTIPEDES (CHILOPODA)
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Crustacea
COPEPODS
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
DECAPODS
Pentastomida
TONGUE WORMS
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Chelicerata (Arachnida)
SPIDERS
Black Widow Spiders
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Brown Recluse Spiders
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
SCORPIONS
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
MITES
Itch Mites
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Human Follicle Mites
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Diagnosis
Treatment
Chigger Mites
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
TICKS
Clinical Syndromes
Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Hexapoda (Insecta)
BLOODSUCKING DIPTERA
Mosquitoes
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Gnats and Biting Midges
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Sandflies
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Blackflies
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
HORSEFLIES AND DEERFLIES
MUSCOID FLIES
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Prevention and Control
MYIASIS-CAUSING FLIES
SUCKING LICE
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
FLEAS
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
BUGS
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
STINGING INSECTS
Physiology and Structure
Epidemiology
Clinical Syndromes
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Bibliography
Answers
Index

 

Product information

Publisher‏:‎Elsevier; 9th edition (March 24, 2020)
Language‏:‎English
Paperback‏:‎872 pages
ISBN-10‏:‎0323673228
ISBN-13‏:‎978-0323673228
Item Weight‏:‎4.42 pounds
Dimensions‏:‎8.25 x 1.5 x 10.5 inches
0323673228

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